Mesopotamia was the beginning of civilizations, which paved the way to creating the civilizations of today.
Egypt, like other ancient civilizations, was one of the first to start growing their own crops and utilizing the land around them. They were also important in creating written language.
They were some of the first people to have large temple structures, but no large palace structures. All of their "towns" were laid out very similarly. They were also one of the first civilizations to include a caste system.
The Shang Dynasty was China's first dynasty. It paved the way for all of the other Chinese dynasties, and developed a system of writing. It developed along the Yellow River so it could use the water for crops and other various things.
China established their civilization and culture without influence from the outside world. They were also one of the first civilizations to develop a written language.
Different small kingdoms were credited with different things. For example, Phoenicia was known as excellent seafarers, while Lydia was the first credited with using silver and gold coins as money.
During the Archaic Period, the people focused and relied a lot on the religious aspects of life. The typical Greek myths that we know today come from this period, as well as the written works from different writers, such as Homer.
The birth of Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) was a major aspect of the Buddhist religion. After being kept at home and sheltered his whole life, Siddhartha finally left and realized that there were awful things in the world. This caused him to meditate until he had reached enlightenment and spread everything he had learned to others around him, which is the start of Buddhism.
The Classical period of Greece turned away from the the mythology and reliance on religion and turned to thinking more logically and intellectually. Many of the people best known in this time were philosophers, such as Hippocrates.
The Hellenistic Period of Greece was a period of more change for the people of Greece. This was when Greeks lost their independence and became part of a kingdom. The men were seen as subjects and not citizens.
The Han dynasty was not as harsh as the previous dynasties, however, they still kept a strong central government. The Han overthrew the Qin who were very harsh.
Paul of Tarsus began preaching about Jesus. His teachings changed it so that the religion was open to everyone and not just a group of Jewish people.
The Franks started moving into the Rhine Valley, and they began clashing with the Romans in the 200s. They would fight over the land and power.
During the winter of these years, Diocletian created an "Edict against Christians" which called for Christians to be boiled or burned alive if they did not comply. Their scripture was burned and churches were burned down.
The Middle Ages of Europe included Feudalism, the rise of the Franks, and various changes in the church. There were many changes in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The fall of the Roman Empire caused the trade in Europe to all but die out.
In 481, Clovis became king of one of the Frankish tribes. This became the Merovingian dynasty. The Merovingian dynasty started to control a larger area. After Clovis became a Christian, he also gained the support of the church. With their support, Clovis seized southern Gaul in addition to already controlling most of Gaul. Gaul is known as France today, and it was named for the Franks.
Benedict was a young monk who became disgusted with the corruption in the monasteries around 500. He decided to leave and live a hermit's life, and he gained many followers for his holiness. He came up with the Benedictine Rule that monks are expected to follow to life a holy life.
Confucius was a well known for spreading his wisdom. He worked in a court for a while, which is where he formed his political opinions. He taught that people needed to gather their own information and think for themselves.
The birth of Muhammed is important to the Islamic religion because Muhammad is the prophet that they Muslims worship.
Prince Shotoku was a great admirer of China, so he imported Scholars who taught Confucianism to teach in Japan. He also made Buddhism popular among Japanese nobility.
After leaving Mecca, Muhammad finally returned to Mecca with his followers. Mecca became the holy city for Muslims to make their pilgrimages.
The world's first printed book was the "Diamond Sutra," which was a Buddhist religious text.
Pepin II reunited the Frankish kingdoms. He was one of Clovis's sons who took control after Clovis died.
Pepin II's son, Charles Martel ruled after Pepin II died. In 732, while he was ruling, the Spanish Moors invaded, but he was able to use the cavalry to stop the Muslim advance.
Pepin the Short was a mayor of the palace after his father, Charles Martel, died. While he was mayor of the palace, he deposed the king and claimed the throne for himself. He was anointed king in 751 and began the Carolingian dynasty.
Charlemagne was best known for being a warrior and a devout Christian. He was one of the greatest kings of France. He spent a lot of his time fighting battles and defeating others in battle. He was also known for trying to vanquish all of Muslim Spain, but he could only push them back so far. He was formally educated and also made sure his children got the best education possible. He also created libraries.
The Golden Age of Arts included art, writing, and fashion. The robes were very important to the nobles. The more layers that a person was wearing meant more wealth. They did it as a way to show off their status.
During this time, the Danes (vikings) took over a lot of Europe.
The Treaty of Verdun ended the three year civil war in the Frankish Empire and divided the empire three ways.
By this time, the Frankish Empire was divided into many different kingdoms ruled by different people. The empire itself was not as strong as it had been when Charlemagne was king.
Otto was known as Otto the Great and he worked hard to make Germany as large and as powerful as France.
Pope John XII asked for Otto's help to fight against the Romans. When Otto succeeded in defeating the Romans, the Pope rewarded him greatly.
Otto the Great had defeated the Romans at the request of the Pope, so when he succeeded, the Pope rewarded him by crowning him emperor of the Romans
During this time, Romanesque style was favored. The arches, domes, vaults, and low horizontal lines were the different architectural features favored by the Europeans.
Lady Murasaki Shikibu was the first person to write a full length novel. The novel was The Tale of Genji, and it was about a prince and his long search for love, during which. he meets many different women from different social classes.
The late Middle Ages held all kinds of events, such as the Crusades, and more trade.
Around 1042, the Danish kings had died out, and the Anglo-Saxons chose a new king. They chose Edward the Confessor as their new king.
Henry III though that the church should be controlled by the emperor, and he removed three popes that he didn't like.
The churches of Rome split into two different churches: the Roman Catholic Church in the west, which allows icons, and the Eastern Orthodox Church in the east, which did not allow icons.
Henry had disagreed with the Pope and upset, so Henry thought he should make it up to him and traveled through harsh weather to meet with him
Pope Urban II wanted to regain Palestine, which was the Holy Land. This was the cause of the First Crusade.
By the late 1100s, the code of conduct had been created for knights to follow. That was a set of rules that knights had to follow in order to be honorable.
The Song of Roland was written in 1100 and was about Charlemagne and his wars against the Moors.
When the explorers learned how to magnetize needles, they could eventually figure out how to make compasses from them.
The Gothic Style of architecture was developed during this time. It included tall spires, arches, thin walls, and tall buildings.
By the late 1100s, Heian was the center of Japanese art and literature. However, this was only in Heian. In the rest of Japan, life was very different. People had to focus on farming and food instead of art and literature.
The Concordat of Worms ended the controversy allowed the emperors to gives fiefs to the bishops, but only Popes could name bishops.
The Second Crusade was led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. It was not successful at all.
He attempted to take over independent cities in Italy because they were wealthy trade centers, but the 4 cities joined together to form the Lombard League and fight against Frederick.
Genghis Khan was known as the fiercest ruler of the Mongols, and he took the Mongols to conquer most of China, Central Asia, and Persia.
King Philip took back much of England after noble families died out. He taxed the clergy to get more power, and when the Pope opposed him, he arrested the Pope. After the Pope died, he helped choose a new Pope that would agree with him more.
During the clan wars in Japan, two of the more powerful clans fought each other. The winner between the two was Minamoto's clan. He was more powerful, and he took the title of Shogun in 1192, meaning that he was a general who ruled in the emperor's name.
Pope Innocent III was the most powerful Pope. He believed that kings and emperors were only servants of the church and that he ultimately had the power.
In the early 1200s, the church was the wealthiest institution in Europe. People had to pay 1/10 of what they had as a tithe, and the church also got payed for its feudal lands, which is what made it the wealthiest institution in Europe at the time.
This was the Crusade meant to get the Muslims out of the Holy Land.
Around 1215, a group of Barons rebelled against King John. They forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which eventually ended up being an unsuccessful document.
In 1273, a ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected as Emperor. This started the Habsburg Empire.
In 1274, Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan, but he was unsuccessful. A typhoon spoiled his plans.
The mongols tried again to invade Japan, this time with 2 armies, but once again, a storm got in the way of them invading. The Japanese saw these storms as the gods protecting them, so they named them Kamikaze which meant "divine wind."
The compasses were able to be created after the explorers figured out how to magnetize the needles.
The amount of trade greatly increased during this time. Things were regulated by the Hanseatic League.
Two teachers at the University of Paris wrote "Defender of Faith" which said the Pope only had power over the church.
The last Capetian king died in 1328.
The plague started in Africa and then spread through Europe in 1347. It killed a majority of Europe by the end. The symptoms were very awful, and people thought you could get it by breathing the air around the sick people.
The Renaissance and Reformation was a time where many things changed in Europe. It was a period of rebirth for Europe
Emperor Charles IV tried to regain power by changing the rules so that only seven people elected each emperor. It did not work as he had planned.
The Ming dynasty finally defeated the Mongols in 1368 after the Mongols had conquered most of China. The Ming attempted to get rid of all of the Mongol influence there, and they made the main religion Confucianism.
Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377. After his death, an Italian Pope was elected.
The exploration and expansion time in Europe was when different countries would send people to explore the oceans and expand the countries by claiming new lands.
The Great Wall of China was reinforced to protect China from the Mongols. The Great Wall of China spreads of 6000 miles, and is seen as one of the 7 wonders of the world today.
The Chinese traveled and explored a lot during the rule of the Ming dynasty. The were able to navigate their ships using compasses, and they had traveled as far as India by 1405.
This removed the Italian and French Popes. A third Pope abdicated, and then a new Pope was elected.
Joan convinced a garrison commander to allow her to have an escort to visit the Dauphin's Court in Chinon
Joan of Arc was captured while she was covering a retreat. Her family was poor, so they were unable to pay the ransom money.
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1450. This made it easier to mass produce and distribute pieces of text.
This was a war for the throne of England. The House of York challenged the House of Lancaster.
When Ferdinand and Isabella married, it united Spain and Castile.
In 1485, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III of York and then married Elizabeth of York so there wouldn't be any problems with the House of York.
After Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the tip of Africa, he named it the Cape of Storms, but it was later named the Cape of Good Hope.
In 1492, Spanish Jews were ordered to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain.
Maximilian I became the Holy Roman Emperor in 1493, following in his family footsteps. He also married someone who added the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy as land.
John Cabot claimed Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New England as British territory.
Ponce de Leon discovered Florida while he was searching for the Fountain of Youth.
The Portuguese reached China for the first time in 1514. They wanted to trade with China and were hoping that going there, they would be able to trade with them.
The ninety-five theses that Martin Luther posted on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral claimed that the indulgences were useless and that the church was corrupted in a way.
After Cortes invaded Mexico, he conquered the Aztecs.
During this time, many different and new religious sects appeared in Germany and Switzerland. A lot of them later died out.
Martin Luther was declared a heretic by Pope Leo X after he posted the ninety-five theses.
The Counter Reformation was the church's response to the Reformation and Protestantism. The church's goals were to return to spiritual matters, make doctrines more clear, and stop Protestantism.
Pizarro claimed Chile and Ecuador for Spain in 1530.
The Jesuits were the Society of Jesus. They were founded by Ignatius de Loyola.
There would by bursts of time where people in Europe would go on witch hunts, afraid that there were witches around.
The Peace of Augsburg was signed by the princes and the emperor, and it allowed each German ruler to choose the religion practiced in his state.
The Chinese finally agreed to have a trading station so that other countries could start trading with China. This proved to be successful, because today China is a main source of various products bought around the world.
Henry became king of France in 1589. He was the first Bourbon king, and he was a Huguenot, but he converted to Catholicism in order to bring peace and unity to France. He was killed by a fanatic.
When China finally allowed a trading station, other countries wanted to trade with China as well, so the British began trading with them in the late 1600s. They were interested in the silk and tea that China had, and in return, the British gave the Chinese the opium that they had. This was the beginning of the Opium epidemic in China.
Queen Elizabeth I chartered the British East India Company in 1600 and they cent up trade centers in different places, which proved to be very successful.
The Shoguns closed off Japan from the rest of the world because they were afraid that Japan would become too much like Europe and they would lose all of their power. They also banned guns so that people would have a harder time trying to rise up against them if they wanted to.
Michael Romanov was elected as Czar in 1613, which started the reign of the Romanov family. The Romanovs ruled Russia for over 300 years.
Because he was only 8 when his father died, Louis XIII did not fully control France until 1617. His mother ruled in his place, but when he was old enough, he started ruling himself.
This war was an uprising of Protestants, and it resulted in a new map of Europe.
He had the longest reign of any monarch in Europe ever. He called himself the Sun King and he built the huge palace at Versailles
The Manchu conquered Beijing and ruled China from 1644 to 1912. The Manchu forced men to Queues, which were long braids.
Peter I was another Romanov leader in Russia. His biggest goal was to make Russia like the rest of Europe.
King Louis XIV dissolved the Edict of Nantes in 1685, which ended religious tolerance. This caused over 200,000 Huguenots to flee France, making France weaker.
By the end of this long war with Sweden, Russia had gained access to the Baltic Sea, and in his newly conquered land, Peter I made St. Petersburg and moved there.
The last of the Habsburgs was Maria Theresa. After her, the dynasty ended.
The Industrial Revolution included very big changes in the production of things. There were improvements made in factories, transportation, and agriculture.
Charles VI was the Holy Roman Emperor, and when he died, he left his throne to his daughter, Maria Theresa. However, the countries that were part of the Holy Roman Empire would not allow Maria Theresa to be the Holy Roman Empress because she was a female. She ruled over Austria, but that was all she was allowed.
This war was fought over Silesia, which was part of Austria.
This war was was also known as the French and Indian War in the United States. This war was fought because Prussia invaded Austria.
The British didn't start claiming colonies until the 1600s, but they were soon able to build themselves up to be the greatest colonial power in the world.
Before he died, Frederick the Great turned Prussia into a major power in the world at the time.
The rulers wanted to return to how things were before the French Revolution and Napoleon.
The Congress of Vienna included ambassadors that met occasionally. After the Congress of Vienna, the relationship between various European countries was relatively calm.
The Opium wars were the wars fought over the trade of opium. A very large population of China was addicted and affected by the opium being traded by the British. The Chinese rulers wanted to stop the trade of opium, but the British refused, so they fought over it. It was finally settled with the Treaty of Nanjing, but the treaty was unfair towards China.
The Taiping Rebellion was an attempt to start a new dynasty in China that would get rid of the European influence and presence, however, it just weakened the Qing dynasty and made China more susceptible to Europeans entering.
The unification of Germany and Italy in this span of years changed the balance of power in Europe.
The loss of this war meant more loss to Britain. China lost even more ports, more land, and more trading privileges after losing the war to Britain. All of that was in addition to what they lost through the Treaty of Nanjing.
In 1888 William II became Kaiser of Germany, and by 1890, he had dismissed Bismarck as chancellor and gotten rid of all of his policies.
This was China's emperor's way of trying to gain control of the country again and improving the country. The idea was that there would be multiple things change during those 100 days that would change China for the better and modernize the country, but they didn't work well.
Russia, Asia, and Great Britain became allies after agreeing to recognize each other's spheres of influence.
Sun Yixian started leading revolts in China to get rid of the Qin dynasty.The nationalists wanted to end "Old China" and start over. The Imperial Army tried to negotiate instead of fighting.
Foot binding was a practice in China for hundreds of years, where women would break their feet and then bind them to make them smaller. It was seen as a symbol of wealth. Even though it was declared illegal in 1912, it didn't actually stop until later.
In February of 1912, after dealing with the revolting from the nationalists, the emperor abdicated his throne, opening up the country to countless things.
World War I was one of the biggest wars in history. Sparked by the increasing tensions between European countries, WWI lasted for 4 years, with fighting all over Europe.
The Balkan Powder Keg was ignited by assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand.
Russia fought Germany at the Battle of Tannenberg. The Russians suffered a humiliating defeat to Germany.
Great Britain and France wanted to make up for Russia's loss against Germany, so they planned to try to capture Constantinople. Unfortunately, their plan had failed.
The British passenger ship, Lusitania, was sunk by a German U-Boat. The United States was upset by this, and warned that if another event like that occurred, they would enter the war.
Bulgaria entered the war as one of Germany's allies.
The loss of faith in their government is essentially what caused the Russian Revolution.
The Russian Revolution was the uprising of Russian people against their government because they had lost faith in their government because they kept losing money.
After the Zimmermann telegram was discovered, the United States declared war on Germany.
Wilson's Fourteen Points were outlined in January 1918. It was his plan to keep the world from another world war.
The armistice called for a ceasefire at 11:11 on November 11, 1918. The fighting stopped on this day so a peace treaty could be signed later.
The Paris Peace Conference was in in Versailles and the leaders of the different countries met to discuss how to handle Germany after the war.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed in May of 1919 and it called for a harsh punishment for Germany. Germany had to pay for all of the damages done in Europe and admit that they were guilty of starting the whole war.
During this movement, students from 13 universities in China met to agree on resolutions. Their 5 resolutions were the following: 1 - opposed giving Chinese land to Japan, 2 - make Chinese aware of how dangerous the Paris events were for China, 3 - recommended a large gathering in Peking, 4 - created student union in Peking, and 5 - hold a demonstration in protest of the Versailles Treaty. That afternoon, students met in Tiananmen Square, and the demonstrations grew all the way into June.
The Chinese Communist party was founded in July of 1921. They were inspired by the Russian Revolution and the ideas of Marx and Lenin. This was the beginning of a time in China that many ordinary people saw as great oppression.
The death of Sun Yixian left the Nationalists without a leader. After his death, someone needed to step up and lead them, so Chiang Kai-Shek came to power. Under his leadership, the nationalist party grew stronger than it had been before.
Chiang Kai-Shek expelled all Soviet leaders so there was no Communist influence. He did not want the country to become Communist, so he also killed a lot of Chinese communists. He saw communism as a threat, so he decided to get rid of it.
The communists that escaped to Southwest China set up their own government, copying the Soviet Union's government.
Two communists in China were executed in 1927, and then in the 1930s, Chiang used the Nationalist military to attack the Communists. He was trying to get rid of all traces of Communism in China. The Communists fled to get away. In 1934, the Nationalists repeatedly attacked them, causing them to flee again.
Foot binding didn't actually end until the 1940s when they actually started enforcing the law. It finally allowed little girls in China to grow up and live a normal life being able to many more things.
During WWII, the Nationalists and the Communists joined together to fight Japan, who was invading them. However, their truce was not exactly a strong bond, and after Japan surrendered in 1945, the truce ended and they were back to their own civil war.
After years and years of trying to beat the Nationalists, the Communists finally defeated them in 1949. This put the Communists in charge of the country, and Mao Zedong led the People's Republic of China.
The plan of the 5 year plan in China was to advance China. The idea was similar to that of the Soviet Union. The two main goals were to build industry and land reform.
After the success of the first 5 year plan, Mao decided to create another one. The plan was to get Chinese factories to match the factories of the Western world. All factories were bursting at the seams with people, running them 24/7, then people were encouraged to make their own steel in their back yards. This plan was not as successful as the first one.
The Red Guard was the groups of men that would go out and raid homes and punish people who were not doing things that Mao wanted them to do. They were radical students that Mao had chosen to lead the Cultural Revolution. It caused great turmoil in China until Mao disbanded it.
President Nixon made a visit to China in 1972, and not long after, China and the United States began exchanges.
Mao Zedong died in 1976, which caused a great fight for power. His widow had the Gang of Four which tried to keep the Cultural Revolution going. However, by the late 1970s, the moderate Communists had gained power and put the Gang of Four on trial because they were radicals.
While China was under Communist rule, the United States recognized Taiwan as China, not China as China. However, after Nixon's visit and the exchanges with China, the United States began to recognize China as China again.
The United States finally signed a trade agreement with China in the 1980s, which has grown into a very large amount of trade between the United States and China.
Pro-democracy demonstrators gathered in Tiananmen Square to protest like the May 4 Movement. By the beginning of June, soldiers came in to try to make them leave and to force feed them because they were going on hunger strikes. Eventually, things got violent and multiple people were shot. The most famous part of this was the "Tank Man" who had stood to block tanks from entering the square.
Hong Kong was finally returned to China in 1997 after it had been taken under British control in the treaty after the Opium Wars.
This was important for China because for a while, they weren't even recognized as a country by the United States, but then they were allowed to host the 2008 Summer Olympics.