Civil war between Bolsheviks, or Reds, and anti-Bolsheviks, or Whites, ravages Russia.
Bolsheviks overthrow provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky, with workers and sailors capturing government buildings and the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, and eventually taking over Moscow.
War communism was the economic and political system that existed during the Civil War from 1918 to 1921. A new system had to be adopted because the ongoing war disrupted normal economic policy. War communism was replaced by the New Economic Policy which lasted until 1928. The policies of War Communism included nationalization of all industries and the introduction of strict centralized management, strict control of foreign trade, strict control on workers with strikes forbidden, requisition of agricultural surplus.
The New Economic Policy was introduced by Vladimir Lenin in 1921. This policy allowed for a partial free market and reintroduced some capitalist ideas following War Communism. The policy abolished gran seizer and replaced it with tax.. The state still controlled large corporations (banks, railroad) but the NEP did allow for small businesses to emerge. The NEP was approved during the 10th Party Congress. NEPman and kulak class emerged out of the NEP. This policy was a contradiction to the socialist project and was designed to be a temporary measure. Policy was successful while harvests were successful and economy destabilized and became more urgent to find a new policy.
The Kronstadt Rebellion was an uprising against the bolshevik party by members of the bolshevik party in March 1921. It was a shock to the Bolshevik Party that those who they saw as loyal members of their party were rebelling. The Kronstadt sailors felt that the regime the Bolsheviks were creating violated the spirit of the revolution that the sailors had helped to win. The rebellion was crushed by the Red Army. It also helped lead to the NEP.