Rebirth of classical literature, art, and philosophy. Secularism, individualism, and humanism.
Printing press: Information Revolution (national identity and questioning of Catholic Church).
Aristotelian principles: crystalline spheres and geocentricism, four elements make up everything).
Causes: universities less about research, Renaissance, technology, Francis Bacon and empiricism, Descartes and deductive reasoning).
Copernicus: heliocentricism, "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres."
Brache: collected data. Kepler: made results from his data.
Galileo: laws of motion.
Newton: motion and gravity
Reason, man over nature, harmony, restraint, intellectual elite.
Reaction to Enlightenment. Irrationality, passion, supernatural, madness, power of nature, defying established conventions, newly liberated and educated masses.
Art: modernism, functionalism, Bauhaus (school in Germany for architecture), impressionism, expressionism, cubism, dadaism, surrealism, Fauvism (abstract, 2D, nonrepresentational). Music: Rite of Spring (1913). Movies: new genre for entertainment (Great Train Robbery, Metropolis) and propaganda (Birth of a Nation, Triumph of the Will).
More taxation; enlistment armies; reduced power of nobility and clergy; gave power to bureaucracies that were loyal to king; found new sources of funding (outside of nobles) → take out loans from major banks in Europe → increased debt → no way for collection of loans
Traditional colonial empires.
Characteristics: ruler only answers to self (not nobility or people), more control of bureaucracy and church officials, standing armies, secret police.
Renewed drive to create cast political empires. More centered on economics and nationalism than before, but without much actual profit.
Postcolonial system that perpetuates Western economic exploitation in former colonies.
Prosperity determined by nation's capital. Exports over imports. Dutch East Indies and New World. Ex: Colbert and Hamilton.
Work subcontracted to homes. Raw materials distributed and then final goods collected.
Britain first because Ag Revolution, more food, lower prices, available workers, land/resources, capital, stable government, control of seas.
Better technology, better iron. Spinning jenny, then water frame. Water power, coal, steam engine and condenser to make more efficient. Railroads: reliable, cheaper, nationwide, movement to cities.
Papal Avignon: seven popes in Avignon, not Rome
Great Schism: multiple popes, loyal to monarchies increases
Inability to deal with Black Death
Selling of indulgences
Nepotism: reserving spots in the church for a specific person
Simony: nobility holding church positions
Pluralism and absenteeism: priest holding more than one position and being absent from one eventually
Ignorance: priests who couldn’t read or write Latin
Political reasons: rising nation states wanted autonomy
Economic reasons: ruler could take church lands and become wealthy
John Wycliff (England): wanted to focus on Bible, not church; personal relationship with God
Jan Hus (Czech Republic): challenged Church for reform; Hussite Wars
Martin Luther (Germany)
John Calvin (France): "Instituties on the Christian Religion;" TULIP: Total depravity (sin is part of humanity), Unconditional election (chose those who are saved), Limited atonement (Jesus only saves a few), Irresistible grace (people follow God), and Preservation (saints can't mess up); community in Geneva; evangelism
Counter to Protestant Reformation and Anglican breakaway. Council of Trent (spiritual renewal of Church through scripture, sacraments, and stricter ruler for officials). Holy Office (kept Papal States Catholic, judicial power, enforcement of laws, Index of Banned Books).
Northern France devastated; at conclusion of war, England now only controlled the city of Calais; use of the longbow and cannon contributed to the end of the feudal ideal.
Origin: Peace of Augsburg brought uneasy truce. Religious conflicts. End: Peace of Westphalia.
Calvinists upset about loss of rights. Defenestration of Prague: Catholics out window. Catholic League v. Protestant Union. Battle of White Mountain: Catholics/HRE win.
Lutheran Danes v. Ferdinand II (HRE emperor). Wallenstein: makes huge gains for Catholics. Edict of Restitution. Catholics/HRE wins.
French and Swedes (Gustavus) join forces. Idea of all Catholic German states gone. Catholic/HRE wins, but both sides tired.
After Sweden, France gets more involved. French attack Spain to help allies. French win by default.
Caused by French Bourbon succession to the throne of Spain that jeopardized European balance of power; coalition army led by the British and Prussians defeated the French and Spanish; thrones of Spain and France could never unite; would be the last of Louis XIV's wars of expansion
Causes: economic rivalry, imperialism, arms race, alliances, nationalism, Balkan "powder key." Schlieffen Plan: Germany cuts through Belgium. Central powers v. allied powers. Technology: machine guns, u-boats, tanks. Gas and airplanes not as much of an impact.
Followed Luther, but got rejected.
Struggle between the Church and Huguenots that ended with the accession of the former Huguenot and first Bourbon king, Henry IV.
Parliamentarians (Roundheads) v. Royalists (Charles). Cromwell.
First estate (clergy), second estate (nobility), third estate (everyone else: bourgeoisie, urban poor, peasants).
Causes: global revolutions, money, resentment of royals, Enlightenment, poor crops).
Constitutional Monarchy (1789): Estates General, Oath of Tennis Court (National Assembly). Dismissed moderate Finance Minister Necker; replaced by Foulon. Bastille (prisoners, guns). Great Fear (tensions), Declaration on the Rights of Man.
Republic in Reign of Terror (1791-1794): September Massacre (angry crowds), National Convention makes republic (Girondists think Revolution is done, Mountain think it must continue). Louis XVI executed (Reign of Terror: Committee on Public Safety led by Robespierre; planned economy).
Directory (1794-1799): Robespierre starts housecleaning Mountain; gets executed.
French uprising against the increasingly oppressive Louis-Philippe sparked a wave of revolt (German states, Austria, Russia, Poland, Italy) by the middle and lower classes against conservative governments; failed because of internal class and ethnic divisions.
Prussian victory ended Austrian influence in German; important step towards German unification.
Context: Nicholas the czar. Karl Marx. Slow to industrialize. Failure in Russo-Japanese War and WWI. Bloody Sunday (led to riots and formation of useless Duma). WWI; protests; army joins protestors; Nicholas abdicates; Petrograd Soviet calls for overthrow of provisional government; Bolsheviks (Reds) seized government; Decrees on Peace, Land, and Workers; universal health care, rights for women. Whites weren't unified against Reds. Red Terror.
Francisco Franco toppled democratically elected Popular Front and established a military dictatorship; Hitler used this war to test his new weaponry.
Papal comprise that awarded land west of the Line of Demarcation to Spain and land east of the Line to Portugal.
Martin Luther called to answer for himself before Catholic Church
Ended Schmalkaldic Wars about religion.
Ended French Religious Wars. Huguenots given religious freedom (150 cities), but still persecuted.
Ended Thirty Years War. Marked shift from religious conflicts in Europe to political/national ones. Created pretty stable country borders up to WWI.
Led to territorial expansion for British and Prussians.
Got ride of Napoleon. Dominated by Metternich. Redrew the map of Europe after Napoleon. Created a pretty stable Europe.
Divided up Africa.
Ended WWI. Dominated by the "peace of vengeance" for French and British (as opposed to the "peace of justice" approach by Woodrow Wilson (self-determination, League of Nations, and forgiveness); Germany had to pay massive reparations, accept total blame for the war, demilitarize the Rhineland, cede Alsace-Lorraine to the French, give up its colonies, forgo rearmament, and greatly reduce its military
Appeasement of Hitler with Sudetenland.
Big Three established United Nations; partitioned Germany (and Berlin) into four zones; Soviets agreed to help US in the war against Japan.
US provided billions in aid to post-WWII Europe.
US had right to intervene to stop spread of communism.
Counterpart to American Marshall Plan.
Soviet Union had right to intervene in countries to prevent capitalism.
Founded Anglican Church (Act of Succession and Act of Supremacy). Didn't really change church. Took monastic land.
Actually changes Anglican church.
Wanted to change church back. Married to Spanish king, who was Catholic.
Protestant Virgin Queen. Realpolitik. Gives Parliament more respect/power. No heir.
Believed in divine right. Sympathetic to Catholics. Lacked common touch.
Parliament passed Petition of Right (1628). Parliament dissolved (1629-1640). Long Parliament (1640-1660). Led to English Civil War.
Returns from France. Wanted to party mostly. People angry (plague, London fire, Catholic brother, wars).
"Too pro-French and too pro-Catholic." Test Act: Catholic.
Replaced James II in bloodless "Glorious Revolution."
Hires Duke of Sully to control bureaucracy and finances (panlette tax on titles and gabelle salt tax). Cleaned up government while rearranging titles.
Mother fired Sully. He hired Cardinal Richelieu (broke power of nobility, divided France into Generalities, king more powerful, nobles less powerful, more bureaucracy, French Academy).
The Fronde (part of French Civil War, 12 years of uprising, wanted rights back).
Image and propaganda in battle. Wins a lot; gets lot of territory. Can't beat England. Defeated in Egypt (Rosetta Stone). Declared himself First Consul. Civil Code: equality for all men. Invades Russia, army depleted. Exiled to Elba.
Start of Russian Renaissance. Sophia ruled through him. Built navy. Built St. Petersburg.
Expanded Renaissance. Expanded Russian territory by 1/3. Good advisors. Enlightened absolutist.
New Economic Policy: capitalist but successful. Death created political power vacuum (Stalin v. Trotsky).
Five-Year Plan (heavy industry, ag). Collectivization (war on kulaks). Industrialization. Women gained equality in the workplace. Propaganda that glorified Stalin and state. Great Purge of Communist Party.
Reformer of Communist Party. De-stalinization. Increased consumer goods and ag. Peaceful coexistence.
Stagnation. Re-stalinization. Czechoslovakia and Prague Spring. Brezhnev Doctrine. Invasion of Afghanistan.
Perestroika: economic restructuring to limit private enterprise. Glasnost: openness. Democratization (grassroots, free elections). Rise of Oligarchs.
Withdrew from USSR. Formation of Commonwealth of Independent States.
Consolidating power (expanding economy, re-establishing world power).