First estate (clergy), second estate (nobility), third estate (everyone else: bourgeoisie, urban poor, peasants).
Causes: global revolutions, money, resentment of royals, Enlightenment, poor crops).
Constitutional Monarchy (1789): Estates General, Oath of Tennis Court (National Assembly). Dismissed moderate Finance Minister Necker; replaced by Foulon. Bastille (prisoners, guns). Great Fear (tensions), Declaration on the Rights of Man.
Republic in Reign of Terror (1791-1794): September Massacre (angry crowds), National Convention makes republic (Girondists think Revolution is done, Mountain think it must continue). Louis XVI executed (Reign of Terror: Committee on Public Safety led by Robespierre; planned economy).
Directory (1794-1799): Robespierre starts housecleaning Mountain; gets executed.