AP European History Timeline

Time Periods

Black Death

1347 - 1352

more death= good economy
leads to Renaissance

Renaissance

1350 - 1550

ART:
Individualism
Secularism
Humanism
ERA
Italian:
secular, humanist, wealthy merchants
North:
dark, religious, royalty

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

triangle trade/columbian exchange
exchange of goods, people, disease, ideas
slave trade
commercial, religious motives (god, glory, gold)

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Lutherans, Hugenots, Puritans
Anti- Catholic Church
Prompted by Luther and Henry VIII

Scientific Revolution

1550 - 1700

CAUSES
Medieval Universities
Renaissance
Renewed emphasis on math
Navigation Problems
Better Scientific Instruments
IMPACTS
Challenged Church authority
Challenged old views on cosmos

The Enlightenment

1648 - 1815

New ideas of the individual, society, and government

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1914

CAUSES
Commercial Revolution
Scientific Revolution
Political and Social Revolutions

New Imperialism

1880 - 1914

CAUSES
Technological Growth
National Security
Natural Resources

Modern Era

1914 - Present

World Wars, Russian Revolution, Cold War

Wars and Treaties

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

CAUSE
England vs France
over claim to French throne
IMPACTS
rise of nationalism
end of chivalry
political centralization
English Parliament created

Fall of Constantinople

1453

Begins Renaissance
Ends Byzantine Empire
Turks move into Europe

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Divided New World between Spanish and Portuguese
Spain= Americas
Portugal= Brazil+Asia

Concordat of Bologna

1516

Agreement between Pope Leo X and King Francis
French king has right to appoint bishops
Monarchy > church

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Officially recognizes Lutheranism to have peace in Holy Roman Empire

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

War of the three Henry's (Henry of Navarre won)
Happened because monarchy was weak under boy kings

Council of Trent

1563

Called to develop strategies against Protestant threat
Created reforms (bible --> vernacular)

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Massacre of huguenots

Spanish Armada

1588

Spain (Phillip II) defeated
Led to downfall of Spain

Edict of Nantes

1598

Issued of Henry IV of France
Granted religious liberty to Huguenots

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Catholics vs Protestants
Ends with Peace of Westphalia
IMPACTS
Destroyed economy, population, land

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Parliament vs Monarchy
Anglican Church vs Puritans
Parliament won-- King Charles I publicly executed
Cromwell took over

Peace of Westphalia

1648

End of Religious Wars
Ended 30 Years War
Made Lutheranism and Calvinism legitimate
Confirmed Holy Roman Empire's severely limited authority

Battle of Vienna

1683

Holy League vs Ottomans
IMPACT
Ottomans stopped westward expansion

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

CAUSE
death of heirless Charles II King of Spain
throne given to Louis XIV's grandson
caused concern of Bourbon monopoly
Ended in Peace of Utrecht

Partition of Poland

1772 - 1795

Done to prevent war between Russia, Prussia, Austria

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

CAUSES
National debt/hunger
Enlightenment ideas
Estates and Old Regime
Inspiration from American Revolution

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

Napoleon Wanted to Expand Empire
Continental System
Defeat at Waterloo
Ended in Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

1815

provide a long-term peace plan for Europe
– settling issues from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
BALANCE OF POWER!!!

Greek War for Independence

1821 - 1832

Against Ottoman Empire
Funded by European Powers
Sparked revolutionary/nationalistic ideas

1848 Revolutions

1848

All failed
Led to breakdown of Concert of Europe

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Demonstrated weakness of Ottoman Empire
Demonstrated Russia's backwardness
Destroyed Concert of Europe --> led to Italian and German unification
Ended in Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Paris

1856

Ended Crimean War
Abolished after Franco-Prussian War

Congress of Berlin

1878

European powers meet to decide fate of the Balkans

Berlin Conference

1885

Attempt to divide Africa
Balance of Power

WW1

1914 - 1918

CAUSES
Powder keg of Europe
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Ended with Treaty of Versailles

Russian Revolution

February 1917 - November 1917

Communists wanted to create Marxist socialist state

Treaty of Versailles

1919

Revenge against Germany (debt, reparations, guilt, restrictions)
- set the stage for WW2

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Nationalists (Franco) vs Communists
Dress Rehearsal for WW2

Annexation of Austria

1938

Taken by Germany
Unopposed by other powers

Munich Agreement

1938

Germany can have Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)
Germany will cease aggression (Germany did not follow this)
"made peace in Europe" --> not really

WW2

1939 - 1945

Axis Powers vs Allies
European and Pacific Theatres
Ends in VD day and VJ day

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

1939

Hitler+Stalin promised to stay neutral if other party became involved in hostility
Decided to split Poland
Stalin signed because he didn't trust Western powers and he got land
Hitler violated pact during WW2

Wannsee Conference

1942

Final Solution of Jewish Question
beginning of Holocaust

Yalta Conference

1945

FDR wants quick Soviet entry into Pacific war.
• FDR & Churchill concede Stalin needs buffer, FDR & Stalin want spheres of influence and a weak Germany.
• Churchill wants strong Germany as buffer against Stalin.
• FDR argues for a ‘United Nations’.

Potsdam Conference

1945

FDR dead, Churchill out of office as Prime Minister during conference.
• Stalin only original.
• The United States has the Atomic bomb.
• Allies agree Germany is to be divided into occupation zones
• Poland borders moved around to suit the Soviets.

Cold War

1947 - 1991

US vs USSR
West vs East (Iron Curtain)
Capitalism vs Communism

Proxy Wars:
Korean War, Vietnam War, Yom Kippur War, Afghanistan War

People

Petrarch

1304 - 1347

First literary humanist
Tried to revive Greco-Roman culture
Death marked beginning of Renaissance

Habsburg Dynasty

1438 - 1740

Ruled Holy Roman Empire
Hundreds of independent provinces, no unity
Had no real power, especially after the Reformation

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Christian Humanist
Church reforms but respect for traditional faith
Individuals should interpret the Bible

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Better to be feared than loved, but not hated
ends justify the means
Power > everything else

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1504

Political unification of Spain
Spanish Inquisition
Reconquista

Tudor Dynasty

1485 - 1603

Began with Henry VII
Ended with Elizabeth I
End of War of the Roses
Established order and law at local level

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Supreme Head of Anglican Church

Calvin

1509 - 1564

Calvinism
Protestant Work Ethic
Predestination

Charles V

1516 - 1556

Brings in Spanish Golden Age

Martin Luther 95 Theses

1517

Lutheranism
Against indulgences and other immoralities of the Catholic Church

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary
Catholic, killed Protestants
Married to King Phillip II of Spain

Phillip II

1556 - 1598

Ruled Catholic Spain
Married to Mary I of England -- ruled England for a little while
Defeat of Spanish Armada

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Religious tolerance (politique)
Death ended Tudor Dynasty
Defeated Spanish Armada

Cardinal Richelieu

1585 - 1642

Made general public suffer, but made nation glorious (politique)

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Won War of the Henries
Religious toleration (politique)
Edict of Nantes
1st Bourbon King

James I

1603 - 1625

Started Stuart Dynasty
King James Bible
Didn't work with Parliament
English Civil War

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Son of Henry IV
Boy King
Ruled with Cardinal Richelieu

Ferdinand II

1619 - 1639

Wanted to restore Catholicism to empire and suppress Protestantism

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Divine right + absolute monarchy
Only called Parliament when he needed money
Got executed during English Civil War

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Protectorate of Commonwealth of England
Parliamentarian
Puritan

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Merry Monarch

Economy