AP Euro Philosophy & Education & Literature


post Black Death


Medical practice seemed useless during Black Plague since most medicine was based on theology
More medical books published in vernacular as well so people know how to deal with illness, and public health and sanitation better understood as well
Renaissance caused more study of human body
Also many deaths were more violent and people grew to either value life or devalue it


1400 - 1600

• Germany introduced secondary school and based on instruction in the liberal arts in Greek and Latin combined with religious instruction
• A new order of nuns the Ursulines focused their attention on establishing schools for the education of girls
• Jesuits established highly disciplined schools borrowing from humanist efforts
• Northern Humanism felt that education in sources of classical and especially Christian antiquity can instill a true inner piety to bring reform to church and society
• They supported schools, bring out new editions of classics, prepare new editions of Bible and writings of the church fathers
• Renaissance humanism impact education; implement humanist teaching methods in schools

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

• Scientific method developed to help the evolution of science in the modern world since used to examine and understand physical realm
• The scientific Revolution lead to a rational approach to understanding the natural world; while the industrial revolution was not based off of pure science and more of amateur inventors more discoveries after 1830s were converted into technological advancements that affected everyone

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

• Protestant schools able to let lower classes in to learn to read Bible for themselves
• Protestants believe need to provide the church with good Christians and citizens
• Luther say all kids should have opportunity to be educated by state, so urges establishment of public schools
• Students divided into 3 classes depending on age or capabilities
• Calvin organize split of “private” and “public” school
• The Genevan Academy eventually became a university that concentrated on preparing ministers to spread Calvinist view of Gospel, had seven classes


1650 - 1800

• Hobbes absolute rule given buy the people but people are evil wrote in Leviathan
• Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government inalienable right people are good; government is to protect these rights; people can form new government if the government is bad; although his people were the landholding classes
• The sciences were used by absolutist rulers to earn more power agriculturally, militarily, and in prestige
• Scientific academies were built
• John Milton had ideas on individual liberty including divorce, the freedom of press, religious freedom for some, talks about rebellion vs. freedom caused by the English Civil War (Paradise Lost)
- Rousseau believed in the general will and that the form of government is dictated by the general will
-Voltaire- wanted the individual rights (freedom of press, religion, etc.)
• Denis Diderot (1713-1784) became a freelance writer and claimed Christianity to be the worst religion and that “This world is only a mass of molecules”
• He was the creator of the Encyclopedia in which he created a large collection of knowledge and this allowed for the further spread of ideas
• “The science of man” (social sciences) emerged due to the belief that Newton’s scientific methods could be used to find all the natural laws of the world’ most of these laws were not universal due to the circumstances of the time
• David Hume (1711-1776) Scottish philosopher wrote in his Treatise on Human Nature that the best way to the “science of man” was through observation and reflection
-• A movement of intellectuals how wanted to use the application of scientific method to the understanding of all life; tried to have scientific, rational thought free from old traditions
• Believed they could make progress toward better society by using reason to find laws that governed human society
-travel accounts made people wish to visit other countries such as China
• People begin to classify people into racial groups
• Polygenesis belief in separate human species; others believe in monogenesis belief in one human species characterized by racial variations, but both classify Africans as lower-class in humans
• John Locke and Isaac Newton inspire enlightenment ideas and convince them that by following Newton’s rules of reasoning, they could discover natural laws that governed politics, economics, justice, religion, and the arts
• Philosophes were intellectuals of the Enlightenment like literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and social reformers from both nobility and middle classes, sometimes lower class
(international and cosmopolitan movement)
• Wanted to use philosophy to change world but it only really affected upper and middle classes in Europe

• A vital part of aristocratic education was the grand tour in which at the end of the education the students would take a tour of Europe’s major cities (this was considered crucial to one’s education)
• Travel however was dangerous due to various problems on the sea and over mountains such as thieves and pirates
• The English spent lavishly but the French saved their money when they traveled
• Since the course was supposed to be educational English mean were constantly followed by a tutor but they could not stop them from pursuing wine, women, and song; in Paris they would take a cram course to learn how to be sophisticated then they would go to Italy to visit the various museums and antiques such as the ruins of ancient Rome, Florence, Venice, etc. also they studied art at the Uffizi Gallery

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1900

• Liberalism- ideas promote economic growth, social reform (middle class support it due to profit)
- slightly moderate position
- they want change, but don’t want slow, but don’t want violence since want to make $$$ (conservatives on right, radicalism on left)
• Jeremy Bentham- liberalism, started utilitarianism, best decision is the one that's best for the govt, ok with change; “Greatest good for the greatest number” philosophy
• Socialism- Idea that wanted to (want private property but also willing to help the people); wants new system; Saw Liberalism only benefits middle class at the expense of the working class
- They wanted to reorganize society(not small political measures); believe IR made 2 classes Middle Class (own means of wealth/Bourgeoisie) and Working Class (Proletariat); still allowed private property (socialist democracy) social agenda that plays into capitalism (some regulation)
• Pierre-Joseph Proudhon - (French)communist, working class struggling , What is Property, property or ownership of property is theft, middle class are owning factories; rents, interest are tools of Bourgeoisie to keep working class trapped; rent ,interest, capitalis=unjust and flawed; used to controlled the workers
• Robert Owen- 1800, 1820 builds model community in New Lanark, Scotland, then New Harmony (fails), Indiana; Utopian ideals for better society; gets started ideas that labor unions can form to make stronger ; If we were just fair and equal to ppl, everything's better, no one work under 9 and have education
• Saint-Simon- free love, - socialist france, utopian France socialists, setup society, baby steps towards communism, emancipate women
• Fourier- socialist france, utopian France socialists, setup society, rotate jobs, emancipate women (emancipation for Women’s rights ?), baby steps towards communism
• Communists- no private property the government has to distribute everything evenly
• Karl Marx- from prussia but goes to France then london to meet Engels since Prussia too conservative to let Marx write freely,
• Friedrich Engels - meets Karl in France and they think they can change the world by writing their work, communist, exposé journalism, show upper class what it's like to live in lower class in cities, with Karl Marx
• Communist Manifesto- 1848 written by Karl Marx and Frederick engels, communist handbook, working class vs everyone else, working class Will have reviewed and create a classless society, state owns all private enterprises
- states that: no private property and classless society
- Proletariat class need revolt against bourgeoisie
- international revolution (all working class revolt against upper class for classless society) “nothing to lose but their chains”
• Sunday School Movement- trying to teach the working class morals by teaching the new generations since no going to church so they can read Bible and teach the parents so society is better in general
- target specifically lower class
- England, Western Europe, and Protestant were more literate (germany states=75%)
- France attempted but not as effective (Catholic)
- specific movement in Western Europe

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Revolutionary leaders like to quote Enlightenment thinkers

2nd Industrial Revolution

1850 - 1900

• The development of the steam engine lead to thermodynamics
• Frenchman Louis Pasteur formulated the germ theory of disease which was extremely useful in the development of modern medicinal practices; he launched the study of bacteriology; his study of a disease threatening the wine industry lead to pasteurization in 1863 and in 1877 turned his attention to human diseases and in 1885 created a vaccination for rabies with the concept of vaccination being applied for other diseases as well
• In chemistry Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table
• Englishman Michael faraday created a primitive generator that laid the way for electricity
• These innovations created a general acceptance of the scientific method and the sciences which helped create more secularization; materialism (the belief that everything mental, spiritual, or ideal was simply a result of physical forces) grew
• Charles Darwin was Naturalist who studied plants and animals abroad the H.M.S. Beagle; his study affected him to believe animals and plants had evolved over time and that natural selection was also a major part of it
• He wrote about his theory in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
• In The Descent of Man he applied natural selection to humans as well; this was highly controversial and went against the beliefs at the time and a world based off of moral values but people began to accept his beliefs later
• The first application of natural science in medicine was in Paris hospitals where active physical examinations of patients were coupled with detailed autopsies
• Robert Koch was successfully able to show how a certain bacteria was the causative agent for a certain disease by affecting certain species with a disease then affecting others with the disease from the infected creatures; Koch and his students identified the specific organisms of at least twenty-one diseases
• Joseph Lister developed the antiseptic principle and used carbolic acid as a disinfectant for wounds; this radically transformed surgery wards
• Soon chloroform was used as a antiseptic agent for operations
• Preventive medicine was practiced in result to the cholera outbreaks by providing clean water, adequate sewage disposal, and less crowded housing conditions and the discovery of germs lead to greater preventive measures such as pasteurization and purification
• Auguste Comte (1798-1857) System of Positive Philosophy created a system if “positive knowledge” based in a hierarchy of all the sciences; math foundation then physical sciences, earth sciences, and biological sciences, top was sociology (science of human society incorporating economics, anthropology, history, and social psychology for Comte)
• Charles Darwin- English naturalist (amateur scientist) On the Origin of Species; Evolution- life on the planet has taken shape over a long long period of time; mankind took hundreds of thousands of years to get to where they are now; this goes against creationism since it’s supposed to be that God created them, etc.; Natural Selection – those that are more adept at surviving survive and reproduce and those that are not don’t; Survival of the FITTEST; basically says the world is violent and we are simply trying to survive
• Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer 1820-1903); Theories applied to society; some humans are more fit to survive than others; Lower classes die off since the people who are rich, strong are the ones at the top; Using science to create pseudoscience since the Victorians can sleep well at night without worrying about all the dead people their empire is creating
• Mass Journalism begins as papers are less expensive; provide Instant, widespread information and main focus is grabbing the reader’s attention with outrageous headlines (at the end it’s all about selling; all about stuff like murder, etc.; some people think it brings people together in nationalistic and others think that this makes people think in certain ways
• Leo Tolstoy shows that the peasant life was better; find solace in Mother Russia in his writing
• Dostoevsky writes The Possessed saying that the anarchists have no plan and are killing themselves for their cause so believe in Russia; both writers reject Liberalism, like Nationalism, conservatism (support Russification)
• The new industry attracted people to the cities where they became more educated through formal schooling and unformal schoolers like Marianne North
• Newspapers covering political affairs expanded their sales to the growing urban population where people read them and workers were inspired to demand greater participation in the political progress

pre WW1

1900 - 1914

Lenin wanted communism with a social elite that distributed wealth to everyone
• According to the relativity theory is something disappears time and space disappear along with it; matter is nothing but another form of energy
• The 1920s would become the heroic age of 1920s
• Look at workings of mind like behavior, intelligence (people afraid of things they don’t understand so try to understand people (like homosexuals) and treat them) also look at mental disorders
• Max Nordau – Degeneration (1892-1893); Sees more nervous complaints, “_bizarre” art increasing, believes this is caused by overstimulation of society; too fast a life, fears cultural degeneration
• Ivan Pavlov (Russian physiologist)- behavior can be controlled by conditioning mental reflexes. Trained a dog to salivate by ringing a bell whenever there was food in front of it
• Sigmund Freud (Austrian) Looks into anxieties, mental problems says we are motivated by BOTH irrational thoughts as well as logical thoughts; writes Interpretation of Dreams (believes he can read dreams and discover a hidden part of human psychology; psychoanalysis)
• Psychoanalysis (talking cure) is practices; look into unconscious
• Ex: Wolfman = Pankejeff (dreams of wolves and Pankejeff says you are cured after saying he is messed up because he walked in on his parents having sex)
• Dreams reveal hidden personality / desires; talking about your problems are accepted (women talk about what it feels like to be a women and unwanted sexual advances; Pankejeff says that the cure is that women are envious of the men’s body and they are making up stories about rape which are not true); Views on sex are that incestual urges constantly suppressed (something that is not really accepted)
• 3 principles of Freud that compete for control of your mind; 1. ID – basic (biological), 2. EGO – deal with reality (balance between ID and real world)(control center; tries to balance things), 3. SUPEREGO – conscience (learned morals, guilt)(moral suggestions)
• Max Weber says too many facts / factors to make good policies; bureaucracies and certain laws can be restrictive eventually charismatic leader will rule on intuitions (and will probably rule to put things in order since no universal positivism rule)
• Friedrich Nietzsche (Nihilist(no tradition)) (1844-1900 (German); Rational v Primal (impossible to know the truth)
• No Universal Truths (E), uses aphorisms (God is dead (not real) is liberating because shows that we comfort ourselves from bad stuff; more that primal mind suffers more rational can move forward (what doesn’t destroy you makes you stronger; when you are just rational mind you become the Ubermensch (Superman) (Ant-Semitism added to his values when his sister says the subhuman attacking the Ubermensch are the Jews)
• Arians (pure representatives of the great Arians are the Germans to protect degradation (Western civilization; people trying to destroy it are the Jews, Africans, and Asians; (building blocks of Nazism))
• Science’s Paradigm Shift (even though there is resistance you shift the people who are resisting you)(at first science seems to be a type of religion since you have faith in the theories, etc. but people like Albert Einsten etc. are changing it)new discoveries change minds
• Atomic level is questioned due to radioactivity
• Antoine Becquerel (maybe atom is not the smallest building block since there radioactivity coming off of it)
• Marie and Pierre Curie (pick up and learn more and more about the atom); Marie Curie gets a noble peace prize in science but turned down from the French Academy of Science because she is a woman(do you want to get your science from a woman or a Jew)
• Quantum theory by Max Planck (reinforces the ideas of subatomic particles and announces the quantum theory saying energy in the form of light are small pockets of energy and you can count them) (not totally done until Einstein)
• Albert Einstein - Theory of Relativity (space and time are not absolute and all varying based on the vantage point of the observer; maybe things do not exist in the same way if you are not viewing; reality is not reality maybe; one constant is speed of light (c); Space, time, motion is relative to observer (time stops no the speed of light in a blackhole; quantum theory says that light is sometimes waves and other times packets of light (physical)

post World War 1

1920 - 1930

• The Lost Generation (writing movement and also people coming out of the war- (Gertrude Stein writes Tender Buttons (focuses on lesbianism), Ernest Hemingway (The Sun Also Rises ;American dream is dead) F.Scott Fitzgerald (frivolous of life The Great Gatsby), T.S. Elliot (The Wasteland all about lost life (the death that surrounds the soldiers; people who come back from the war are void of something)

Cold War

1947 - 1991

• existentialism- question of existence (who are we, why do we exist, how (individual development determined by individual actions, absence of God, left on your own so what you do is good or evil; human choice is all you have no God and start choosing since birth and you are good because you are good and bad because you are bad)
• Albert Camus- writes The Stranger, says there are no safety blankets if you don’t believe in God(good and evil is determined by what you do
• Jean-Paul Sartre- existence precedes essence (born, exist, then you be, first you are there and when you start making decisions then you are a being (has a soul a personality))
• Simone de Beauvoir- writes The Second Sex about women not making the necessary decisions to be meaningful in life (women becomes object if you just accept the men’s ideals)
• Brown vs Board of Education- overturns the Supreme Court ruling of Plessy vs. Ferguson (which states segregation is all right) that segregation is legal (in the schools) (1954) Obviously,
Big Questions Arise
1. Advancements inherently create divergence
a. Good and create more advancements . . . OR
b. Problems and moral issues arise
• Rejects existentialism (created by Claude Levi-Strauss and say free will does not exist)
• Nonexistent, or limited free will
• Behavior dictated by outside structures such as kinship, rules, economy, and society
• Writes a book called Savage Mind and says that when we are making robots we are really only making automatons of ourselves