WHAP Empires


Period 1

1500 BC - 600 BC

Era in which civilizations began to emerge.


600 BC

Period 2

599 BC - 600 CE

ACTUALLY 600 BC - 600 CE

Era in which multitudes of empires were established.

Period 3

601 CE - 1450 CE


Era in which long-distance trade, and trade in general, flourished.

Birth of Islam

621 CE

Period 4

1451 - 1750


Discovery of the Americas (and the occurrence of colonialism) & multiple revolutions occur.

Columbus lands on Hispaniola


Industrialization Begins in Britain



1751 - 1900


Era of industrialization, revolutions, imperialism (replaces colonialism), and nationalism.


1901 CE - Present


Era of world wars.


Asia (Mostly E. Asia)

Shang Dynasty

1600 BCE - 1050 BCE

Political: monarchy

Economic: agriculture, trade, silk, collected tributes from the people

Social: patriarchy, hierarchy

Religion: polytheism, ancestor worship

Technology & Arts: production of silk, hoe, chariot, writing, brone works

Environment: irrigation, mining

Zhou Dynasty

1046 BCE - 256 BCE

Political: Mandate of Heaven, monarchy continued from Shang

Economic: agriculture, trade, silk all continued from Shang

Social: patriarchy, hierarchy all continued from Shang, PLUS Confucian ideas (women lose status in the Zhou b/c of Confucian values to act womenly and be subservient to men b/c it was natural and proper)

Religion: polytheism, ancestor worship contiued from Shang, PLUS Daoism

Technology & Arts: Confucianism, Daoism, Lgalism

Environment: same as in Shang

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

Political: Legalism, Shi Huangdi (like Alex. the Great, the Qin Empire falls when Huangdi dies)

Environment: Great Wall of China construction begins

Legacy: Shi Huangdi unified China via standardizing laws, currency, and Chinese script, terracotta soldiers, invention of crossbows that carries into the Han

Han Dynasty

206 BC - 220 CE

Political; Confucianism (value on education and knowledge of Confucian texts), Mandate of Heaven

Social: filial piety (Confucian value), shi, (scholar bureaucrats), patriarchy (women = subordinate to men yet have a higher status than in later Chinese periods)

Technology: crossbows, water mills, brush pens, paper, rudders, compasses

DECLINE: unable to continue to defend long borders, official corruption & inefficiency, peasant uprisings (Yellow Turban Revolt)

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618

Legacy: Grand Canal completed (enriches the Tang dynasty), Imperial Examination System appears (using standardized tests to find the most capable people)


618 - 907

Culture: "cultural golden age" (painting, woodblock printing, poetry)

Religion: Buddhism (Empress Wu); Confucianism = challenged b/c Buddhism allowed more freedom for women and appealed to lower class, also lack of filial piety; Emperor Wuzong against Buddhism

Legacy: flourished trade

Inventions (Technology): paper, gunpowder, compass, printing)


960 - 1279

Similar to Tang

Mongol Century

1200 - 1300

Marco Polo

1254 - 1324

Yuan Dynasty

1271 - 1368

The Mongol empire extends into China thanks to Kublai Khan, Imperial Examination system is abandoned

Confucianists don't accept Mongols, ethnocentric rebellion (Ming rebellion) occurs


1368 - 1644

Emphasis on ethnocentricism

Legacy: Zheng He, junks, Ming Renaissance (production of luxury goods like porcelain), absorbs silver from the silver trade of the Americas b/c collected tax with silver

Zheng He



1645 - 1912


Republic of China

1912 - 1949

People's Republic of China

1949 - Present



Mauryan Empire

322 BCE - 185 BCE

Political: empire, monarchy, Ashoka (Ashoka's Edicts = law code)

Economic: trade, agricultur

Social: patriarchy, caste system, strict hierarchy

Religion: Hinduism, Buddhism

Gupta Empire

320 CE - 550 CE

Political: monarchy, empire, Ashoka's Edicts continued from Mauryan PLUS theater-state

Economic System: trade, agriculture continued from Mauryan PLUS tribute

Religion: Hinduism, Buddhism continued from Mauryan

Dehli Sultanate

1210 CE - 1524 CE

Political: sultanate, Delhi, formed by mamluks (overthrew the former sultan and conquered India), contained Calicut (not the capital)

Economic: agriculture, trade, jizya tax (head tax on non-Muslims)

Social: hierarchy, patriarchy, mamluks, Hindus granted the status of dhimmi (protected subjects) even though they worshipped multiple gods)

Mughal Sultanate

1526 CE - 1857 CE


Middle East

Ancient Egypt

1800 BC - 1600 BC

Political: monarchy/theocracy, pharaoh

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: patriarchy, but women had significant rights (women in upper class were respected because marriage alliances were important in continuing upper class bloodlines), hierarchy, slavery

Technology: pyramids, papyrus, hieroglyphics

Babylonian & Assyrian Empires

1500 BCE - 600 BCE

Political: empire, Hammurabi's Code (women seen as property/slaves, men could take multiple partners whilst women couldn't)

Economic: trade, agriculture

Religion: polytheism

Social: patriarchy, hierarchy, slavery

Technology: cuneiform, metallurgy

Arts: Epic of Gilgamesh

Environment: remples, irrigation mining

Persian Empire

550 BCE - 330 BCE

Political: founded by Cyrus the Great, satraps (provincial governors, also collected tributes for the state from the people), bureaucracy

Economic: trade, agriculture

Social: patriarchy, hierarchy, slavery continued from Babylonian/Assyrian PLUS merchants grow in importance

Religion: Zoroastrianism (dualist religion, humans can choose between good and evil)

Technology: qanats (underground waterways) , Royal Road

DECLINE: sparked by the Persian Wars against Athens

Umayyad Caliphate

661 CE - 750 CE

Political: caliphate, Damascus = capital

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: hierarchy, patriarchy

Cultural: Islam, Christianity, Great Mosque

Environment: irrigation

History: conquered N. Africa and Persia, also Spain (the gretest extent of any Muslim territory)

Decline: surpressed ethnic groups revolted, Persians take over and form the Abbasid Caliphate

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

Political: caliphate, Baghdad ("city of learning") = capital, Mansur 9religious tolerance, commenced the translation movement in which he translated foreign works of lit. into Arabic, vizier )chief minister), qadi (judges picked from the ulama)

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: hierarchy, patriarchy, social mobility (rural ppl could move to the city, non-Muslims could convert to Islam, slaves could be freed, children born to slave mom + free Muslim dad = free Muslims), slavery, harem, egalitarian (all ppl are equal)

Cultural: Islam, Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism

Technology: algebra, algorithms, astrolabe, first paper of the Islamic world (increased the availability of books)

Mamluk Caliphate (Egypt)

1250 - 1517

Political: caliphate, Cairo = capital, caliph appointed a qdi (chief jurist), sharia law

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: hierarchy, patriarchy, mamluks, bottom of society = people with occupations that violated Islam teachings (e.g. usurers (lent money for interest) and slave dealers)

Cultural: Islam, Sufi Islam (individual could experience God directly)

History: mamluks = non-Muslim slaves used by Islamic states as warriors, if they converted to Islam, then they were freed and their children would be born Muslim, many rose to high positions, then they staged a coup and founded the Mamluk caliphate

Battle of Ayn Jalut: Mamluks defeat the Mongols

Damascus = 2nd largest Mumluk ity (used to be the Umayyad capital), plague wiped out 33-40% of the population in Egypt and Syria

Ottoman Empire

1299 CE - 1923 CE

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1722




1200 BC - 700 BC

Ancient Greece

800 B.C. - 338 B.C.

Political: polis (city-states) (e.g. Athens & Sparta), democracy, aristocracy, oligarchy

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: patriarchy (women were freer in Sparta b/c had to take over Sparta while the men were at war, lesser so in Athens where they held no political/business ownership)

Religion: polytheistic

Technology: philosophy

Environment: Acropolis (temple), irrigation

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 31 BCE

Political: republic, Senate (patricians = aristocrats controlled the Senate)

History: Augustus Ceasar establishes an empire

Macedonian Empire

339 BC

Date depicts when Greece was conquered by Macedonia.

King Philip II builds military of Macedonia, conquers Greece

Son Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, Persia, Indus River Valley, commences the Hellenistic Age.

Empire falls after Alex. the Great's death.

Hellenistic Period

324 BC

Roman Empire

30 BC - 476 CE


All Roman Republic info. continued here

Political: Senate has no power, Augustus has it
addition of the Law of the Twelve Tables to Roman Law
military reduced in size in favor of efficiency
new things = precedent, equity of all citizens, interpretation of law by judge, natural law/rights

History: Pax Romana

Social: patron-client relationships
women in upper classes were under strict scrutiny of the males by the family
slavery / incorporated conquered peoples
patricians (aristocrats), plebeians (commoners)

Technology: aqueducts, amphitheatres, sewage systems

DECLINE: defense of very long border, incompetent/corrupt string of emperors ("Third Century Crisis"), class struggles over land, epidemics as a result of trade

Constantine creates Constantinople

330 CE

Created in order to escape nomadic attacks occurring in the Roman empire.

Byzantine Empire

330 CE - 1453 CE



Bantu Migrations Begin

500 BC

1st = spread of the first crop planting techniques
2nd = development of metallurgy
3rd = spread of Bantu languages
By 1000 CE, agricultural peoples who used iron tools had settled throughout sub-Saharan Africa, many of them speaking Bantu languages

Social: griots (royal storytellers), patriarchy (men could take multiple wives)

Kingdom of Ghana

400 CE - 1200 CE

Mali Kingdom

1230 - 1600

Political: monarchy, sultan, Mansa Musa, Sundiata, contained the city of Timbuktu

Economic: agricultural, trade (caravans brought slaves and gold from the S. and exchanged them for cloth, pottery, and glass trinkets from the N.), pure salt = currency

Social: stratified, patriarchy, matrilineal, royal woman had muh more power than their N African counterparts (but rulers were still male)
"great attention to memorizing the Qura" - Ibn Batutta (e.g. children
were placed in shackles if they didn't memorie assigned passages from
the Quran)

Ibn Battuta




The Olmecs

1200 BC - 400 BC

Political: monarchy

Economic: agriculture, long-distance trade

Social: stratified

Religion: temple rituals

Arts: giant stone heads

Environment: temples, drainage systems, raised fields


1000 BCE - 300 BCE

Political: empire/monarchy

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: stratified

Religion: jaguar god

Technology: metallurgy

Environment: roads, buildings llama

The Mayans

300 CE - 900 CE

Political: monarchy, city-states

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: stratified, patriarchal

Religion: polytheistic human sacrifice, Ritual Ball Game, jaguar

Technology: hieroglyphics, math (zero), astronomy

Arts: Popol Vuh

Enironment: slash-and-burn

Inca Empire

1100 CE - 1533 CE

Political: divine monarchy (Atahualpa), empire (Cuzco), mi'ta

Economic: agriculture, trade

Social: stratified, patriarchal

Religion: polytheistic, divine monarchy, Inti (Inti Raymi dance)

Technology: quipu

Environment: ardennes, earthquake-resistant architecture

Aztec Empire

1325 CE - 1521 CE

Political: monarchy, empire, tributary system

Ecnomic: agriculture, trade

Social: stratified, patriarchal

Religion: polytheistic, human sacrifice

Environment: chinampas, stone architecture


1775 - Present


Period 1 Events

Period 2 Events

Period 3 Events

Umayyads conquer Spain


The greatest extent of the Muslim empire

The Great Schism of 1054


Split into Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox

The Black Death


Portuguese explorers in the Indian Ocean


During the 1450s

Fall of the Byzantine Empire


Thanks to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople led by Mehmed II




investiture Controversy


Renaissance in Italy