AP European History

Period 1

Period 1

1450 - 1648

Fall of Constantinople


Beginning of Renaissance

War of Roses

1455 - 1485

Lancaster (Red Rose) vs York (White Rose) for the English Monarchy

Unification of Spain


Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon

Start of Spanish Inquistion


Expulsion of all Muslims and Jews of the Iberian Peninsula by Isabella and Ferdinand

Bartholomeu Dias sails around Africa


Dias sailed for Portugal

Christopher Columbus sails to the New World


Columbus sailed for Spain

Start of Protestant Reformation

October 31, 1517

Martin Luther publishes the Ninety-Five Theses

Zwinglian Reformation Begins


New Protestant Reformation led by Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland

Peasants' War

1524 - 1525

King Henry VIII's Act of Supremecy


This established King Henry VIII, and all monarch to follow, as the ruler of his newly founded Anglican denomination.

Vesalius' "On the Fabric of the Human Body"


This book discusses and illustrates many of the human body's organs and their functions

Copernicus' "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres"


This book establishes the theory of a heliocentric solar system

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Beginning of the Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation)

Peace of Augsburg


This allowed each prince within the Holy Roman Empire to chose between being Roman Catholic or Lutheran, but could not chose Calvinism

The French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Revolt of the Netherlands

1566 - 1609

The Netherlands were fighting for their independence against Spain, led by Habsburg, Philip II

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


In Paris, where Henry of Navarre's wedding was being held, many French Huguenots were in Paris, and following the attempted assassination of a Huguenot leader, a massacre against the French Huguenots followed

Spanish Armada


The failed Spanish invasion, under Philip II, of England, under Queen Elizabeth

Edict of Nantes


Issued by Henry of Navarre, established France, as official Roman Catholic, but allowed Huguenots to worship and have equal political rights

Protestant Union formed


Led by Elector Palatinate Frederick IV, this was a military alliance of all the Protestant German states

Catholic League formed


Led by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, was a military alliance of all of the Catholic German states, this alliance was formed as a response to the Protestant Union

Gustavus Adolphus

1611 - 1632

He led a continent wide military revolution, with new tactics and weaponry, he was king of Sweden

Defenestration of Prague


Protestant nobles in Bohemia declared their independence from Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand, and declared their independence by throwing two Habsburg officials out of a window (defenestration)

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Danish Intervention


King Christian IV intervened siding with the Protestants

Harvey's "On Motion of the Heart and Blood"


This book discusses the cardiovascular system, and refutes the Greek medical authority of Galen

Swedish Intervention


King Gustavus Adolphus sided with the Protestant Union

Frederick William the Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Frederick brought prosperity and military ingenuity to the German state of Brandenberg-Prussia

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

This a war against the Roundheads (Parliament supporters) and the Cavaliers (King supporters)

Reign of Louis XIV (Sun King)

1643 - 1715

He centralized government power, deported Protestants, revoked the Edict of Nantes, and waged many wars as king

United Provinces Independence


The Netherlands was now independent from Spain

Treaty of Westphalia


France and Sweden gained territory, allowed German princes to have complete individual sovreignty over their religion and military, also the Holy Roman Empire had lost its collective and autonomous power, and the Emperor was now simply a figure head, this treaty ended religious wars in Europe

Hobbes' "Levithan"


This book is a response to the English Civil War, and was a logical/political defense of absolutism

Peace of Pyrenees


This was the peace treaty between the Spanish and French, in their conflict that lasted past the Thirty Years' War, which put an end to the Spanish military empire, and turned France into a dominant nation in Europe

Restoration of the English Monarchy


King Charles II, a Catholic, claims right to the throne

Edict of Nantes revoked


Louis XIV said, "one King, one law, one faith"

Newton's "Principia"


This book discussed many mathematical proofs and demonstrated the laws of gravity

The Glorious Revolution


William of Orange and Mary "invade" England, but no violence broke out, and they created a constitutional monarchy

English Bill of Rights


William and Mary sign this bill to make England officially a constitutional monarchy

Locke's "Two Treatises on Government"


This book was response to the Glorious Revolution, and Hobbes' "Leviathan", it laid the foundation for liberal philosophy, and the idea of a "tabla rasa", or "blank slate"

Peter the Great

1689 - 1725

Peter the Great westernized Russia, while also immensely growing its military

Period 2

Period 2

1648 - 1815

Hume's "Treatise on Human Nature"


This book looks into the "science of man" and physiology