AP European History Timeline

Political/Military

Beginnings of representative assemblies in England, Spain, the German Empire

1250 - 1450

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

English victory over the French at Crécy

1346

English smash the French at Agincourt

1415

Charles VII revives France and monarchy

1422 - 1461

French victory at Orléans; Charles VII crowned king

1429

Joan of Arc declared a heretic and burned at the stake

1431

Medici family in power in Florence

1434 - 1494

Reign of Ivan III in Russia

1462 - 1505

Marriage of Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon

1469

Union of Burgundy and Habsburg dynasties

1477

Invasion of Italy by Charles VIII of France

1494

Spanish under Cortés conquer Mexico

1519 - 1522

Charles V's wars against Valois kings

1521 - 1555

Start of Habsburg-Valois Wars

1521

Turkish victory at Mohács leads to spread of Protestantism in Hungary

1526

Spanish under Pizarro conquer Peru

1531 - 1536

Reign of Ivan the Terrible in Russia

1533 - 1584

Reign of Mary Tudor and temporary restoration of Catholicism in England

1553 - 1558

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Reign of Elizabeth and the "Elizabethan Settlement" in England

1558 - 1603

Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis

1559

Civil War in the Netherlands

1568 - 1578

Mary, Queen of Scots, is beheaded for plot to assassinate Elizabeth

1587

Spanish Armada defeated

1588

Henry IV in France

1589 - 1610

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Growth of absolutism in Austria and Prussia

1620 - 1740

Reign of Frederick William in Prussia

1640 - 1688

English Civil War ends with execution of Charles I

1642 - 1649

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Military rule in England under Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Treaty of Pyrenees marks end of Spanish Imperial dominance

1659

Restoration of English Monarchy under Charles II

1660

Cossack revolt led by Razin

1670 - 1671

Habsburgs defend Vienna; win war with Ottoman Turks

1683 - 1718

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

Peace of Utrecht

1713

Growth of Prussian military

1713 - 1740

Reign of Frederick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Enlightened absolutists

Approx. 1750 - 1790

Reign of Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 - 1796

Reign of Joseph II of Austria

1780 - 1790

Social/Economic

Famine in northern Europe

1315 - 1322

Black Death arrives in mainland Europe

1348

Jacquerie peasant uprising in France

1358

Peasants' Revolt in England

1381

Re-emergence of serfdom in eastern Europe

Approx. 1400 - 1650

Flow of Balkan slaves to the eastern Mediterranean; flow of African slaves to the western Mediterranean

1420 - 1485

Biosocial exchange between Europe and the Americas (peoples, fauna, flora, disease)

1510 - 1650

Peasants' Revolt in Germany

1525

Much of Europe hit by price inflation

1560 - 1600

Height of European witch-hunt

1560 - 1660

Dutch East India Company founded

1602

Food riots common across Europe

1605 - 1715

Royal Society of London founded

1662

Jean-Baptiste Colbert applies mercantilism to France

1665 - 1683

Construction of baroque palaces

Approx. 1680 - 1750

Growth of book publishing

1700 - 1789

Peter the Great founds St. Petersburg

1702

Rococo style in art and decoration

1720 - 1780

Salons led by elite women

Approx. 1740 - 1780

Intellectual/Religious

Babylonian Captivity; papacy in Avignon

1309 - 1376

Dante, Divine Comedy

1310 - 1320

Marsiglio, Defensor Pacis

1324

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Chaucer; Canterbury Tales

1387 - 1400

Invention of movable type

1454

Gutenberg's Bible

1456

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Pope Julius II begins work on Saint Peter's Basilica

1506

Michelangelo paints ceiling of Sistine Chapel

1508 - 1512

Machiavelli, The Prince

1513

More, Utopia

1516

Erasmus publishes Greek New Testament

1516

Martin Luther, "95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences"

1517

Diet of Worms

1521

Henry VIII asks Pope Clement VII to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon

1527

Castiglione, The Courier

1528

Scientific Revolution

Approx. 1540 - 1690

John Calvin, Genevan Catechism

1541

Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office and Roman Inquisition

1542

Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

1543

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Peace of Augsburg officially recognizes Lutheranism

1555

Life of William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Life of Galileo

1564 - 1642

Life of Kepler

1571 - 1630

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Edict of Nantes

1598

Publication of King James Bible

1611

Habsburgs crush Protestantism in Bohemia

1620

Birth of French Academy

1635

Golden Age of Dutch art (Vermeer, Van Steen, Rembrandt)

1640 - 1680

Nikon reforms Russian Orthodox church

1652

Charles II agrees to re-Catholicize England in secret agreement with Louis XIV

1670

Edict of Nantes revoked

1685

Newton, Principia and law of universal gravitation

1687

Enlightenment

Approx. 1690 - 1780

Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding

1690

Life of Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Diderot and d'Alembert, Encyclopedia

1751 - 1765

Rousseau, The Social Contract

1762