Elizabeth's Foreign Policy


Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis


Although France either promised to give England 500k crowns, or give Calais back after 8 years, they never intended on doing this and so it was an effective surrender. That said, the loss of Calais was not catastrophic: in 1540 there were only 150 merchants there, and the garrisons sometimes costed more than the revenue.

Intervention in Scotland

1559 - 1560

Religious causes: 1559 France only intervened because they were Protestant rebels, and although MQoS was a threat because of the Guise faction, she only threatened Elizabeth because she was a Catholic alternative. Furthermore, Elizabeth used Protestant commanders, like Cuthbert Vaughan and Grey de Wilton (who actually led the forces despite Norfolk's ostensible command)

Treaty of Edinburgh


although this was a success for England, since it established an Anglophile Protestant Government, which did not support France when England intervened (1562-3) and forced M to abdicate (1567), this was not because of English skill: they actually failed at Leith in 1560. Rather, this was because of the extraneous factors of a gale destroying the French fleet, and the Guise factionalism, and Mary of Guise's death ending interest in England

Intervention in France

1562 - 1564

Reasons - Although E1's were never explicitly religious, since she focused on impressing Robert Dudley and the geopolitical issues of regaining Calais and limiting the Guises' power, the religious issues underlie it: the 1562 Wars of Religion meant that a united Catholic France could threaten England, or a united Huguenot France could support England; Dudley's motives were religious; and Protestants like Sir Nicholas Throckmorton and the Earl of Warwick were used in France.
Failure - Elizabeth never ended up aiding the Huguenots: when she captured Le Havre (1562), P2 told her to back off, and the Hugenots thought she was being too expansionist. This resulted in the 1564 Treaty of Troyes, in which E1 renounced all her claims on Calais.

Privateering against Spanish monopoly of slave trade

1562 - 1586

John Hawkins broke Spanish monopoly on slave trade in 1562-3, 1564-5, 1567-8. Pauline Croft argues this made E1 seem aggressive, since E1 personally supported John Hawkins. SuDo says it wounded Sp.'s pride of their empire in the New World. However, the material effects were weak. Drake's expedition to Indies only seized £60k booty, and in 1585-6 Spanish commerce reached its peak.

Duke of Alva arrives in Netherlands 50k men


Although this was ostensibly a geopolitical threat, since NLs were close to England and so an easy point of invasion, this was only a threat because of a potential Spanish religious crusade

Alva defeated William of Orange


This defeated the major Protestant vanguard

MQoS flees to England


murdered Lord Darnley husband

Seizure of £85k bullion


Although this was arguably caused by San Juan de Ulua, which suggests privateering caused tensions, the news of the skirmish was still sketchy. Arthur Champernowne, vice-admiral in Plymouth, had more religious intentions, since he wanted to stop the bullion from being used against Protestant Dutch

San Juan de Ulua

Sep 1568

Rudolfi Plot


Treaty of Blois

April 1572

France and England defensively allied, with the obvious implication being against Spain. Although some of this improvement in relations is geopolitical, since Spain was an obvious threat and E1 wanted to limit France's ambitions in NLs, the religious subtext that she was avoiding a Spanish crusade is obvious, since this occurred a year after Rudolfi

Breakdown in Anglo-Spanish relations

April 1572 - 1573

This did have geopolitical reasons. In 1571 France had proposed an Anglo-Franco-German attack on NLs, and E1 and Burghley feared this would lead to French dominance. The April 1572 Dutch revolt could allow France to invade NLs and gain more dominance. However, the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre was the final straw, and this was religious

English envoys tried to form Protestant coalition against Spain


Huguenots, WIlliam of Orange, Elector Palatine
This suggests religion determined whom England allied with

E1 told P2 to remove troops


P2 refused. SuDo argues this shows that E1 did not plan a religious crusade, since she only wanted P2 to back off; she was likely happen to keep Catholicism the public religion, but allow more toleration of Protestants

Sack of Antwerp


This caused all 17 provinces to revolt, which made the Netherlands a more acceptable ally than just Holland and Zealand. It also prompted the geopolitical threat of more Spanish in NLs

Pacification of Ghent


Spain promised religious liberties and to remove troops from NLs. E1 promised £100k help if Spain refused. Spain accepted

Conflict Resumed


E1 did not end up sending funds - suggests her cautious consistent policy

E1 sponsored John Casimir of the Palatinate with 11k mercs


This suggests her cautious but consistent policy. However, he supported Calvinists and so actually made the problems worse

E1 sponsored D of Anjou

1580 - 1581

As a Catholic, this suggests religion was not everything

Throckmorton Plot


Walsingham had Throckmorton under surveillance for 6 months before

William of Orange assassinated

July 1584

This intensified the threat of Spain subduing the Nethlands and moving on to England

Treaty of Joinville

Dec 1584

Potential Franco-Spanish crusade against England

Treaty of Nonsuch


E1 backed E of Leicester to lead 6,000 men into NLs

Babington Plot


Walsingham intercepted letters between Anthony Babington and M

MQoS executed