Immigration

Events

1790 Naturalization Act

1790

What it was:
-must live in US for 2 years
-must be free white male
-president can deport people
-US can detain immigrants

Implications:
-Longer residence meant stronger allegiance and assimilation, common interests

1795 Naturalization Act

1795

-i think it's the same as 1790 but must live in US for 5 years

1798 Naturalization Act

1798

-must live in the US for 14 years
-was part of the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (could deport potentially dangerous aliens, imprison anyone making false or malicious statements about the incumbent admin or congress)
-US and France at war

1802 Naturalization Act

1802

-must live in US for 5 years
-time of partisan fighting, who will vote for who

1850 Foreign Miners License Tax

1850

-Targets foreigners in general
-monthly tax to mine
-a bunch of miners revolt and it’s repealed

1852 Foreign Miners License Tax

1852

-Targets miners who didn’t want to be US citizens
-the catch was that Chinese couldn’t become US citizens b/c only Free white persons could
-Made a lot of $$ for CA
-AS A RESULT OF MINER TAXES, CHINESE WORKERS ARE PUSHED FROM MINES INTO CITIES

1862 Anti-coolie Law

1862

-Indian and Chinese workers are seen as semi-slaves
-this law outlaws transportation of “coolies” to foreign countries

1868 Burlingame Treaty

1868

-treaty between US and China of good will
-immigration was promoted
-US had interests in having good relations (i.e. Trade) but anti-Chinese exclusion would hurt their relationship
-Chinese people could emigrate freely to US

1875 Page Law

1875

-prohibited immigration of Chinese women for the purpose of prostitution (“lewd and immoral purposes”)
-Chinese women perceived as prostitutes
-Viewed China as a slave-like society
-The labor contract system within Chinese communities; assumed that Chinese workers were not free
-Chinese women underwent much scrutiny (measurements, photos)

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

-FIRST FEDERAL IMMIGRATION LAW (BESIDES ANTI COOLIE LAW)
-FIRST MAJOR LAW RESTRICTING IMMIGRATION IN THE US
-only supposed to be in effect for 10 years; renewed in 1892; made permanent in 1902
-included loopholes for exempt groups (merchants, diplomats, teachers, students, travelers)
-These exclusion laws led to the development of an elaborate inspection process, detention, housing system, need for paper docs, expansion of a state immigration bureaucracy

1891 Immigration Act

1891

-Made all immigration under federal control
-added excludable categories
-FIRST GENERAL DEPORTATION PROVISION
-Bureau of immigration (exclusive control over immigration enforcement; power went from states to federal gov’t)

1898 Treaty of Paris

1898

Spain liberates Cuba, US takes control over Cuba, US annexes PR and Guam, US acquires Philippines for $20 million

Alien Land Laws (early 20th C)

Approx. 1900 - Approx. 1950

-anti-Chinese sentiment on farms
-can’t buy or lease or hold agricultural land

Insular Cases (1901-1905)

1901 - 1905

-Creates category of non-citizen national
Does US citizenship follow the flag?  NO, they are nationals
Does the constitution follow the flag?  dealt with in the Insular cases
-Incorporated (i.e. Hawaii) vs. unincorporated territories (i.e. Puerto

PR: “racially fit,” closer to US, under 1 million people
Philippines: could not assimilate because “Asiatic & African,” farther away, 8 million people, was useful for China market and military strategy
-Incorporated: often taken over by white people (i.e. white settlers in Hawaii took over), on path to statehood, constitutional rules and protections apply
-Unincorporated: usually populated by “alien races,” not on path to statehood, constitution does not apply but residents have fundamental rights

1904 Mounted Guard

1904

-First “illegal” immigrants were Chinese because the only laws were targeting them
-Not much money for policing, resources varied from state to state, more focus on smugglers
-WW1 wartime border patrols focused on Alien enemies/radicals/anarchists

WWI 1914-1918

1914 - 1918

-Anglo-Saxonism
-Theodore Roosevelt's (1915) anti-hyphenism, undivided loyalties: exclusionary nationalism, if you have hyphen you must still be loyal to home country
-High point of American nativism
-Mostly anti-german sentiment (there were 2.3 mill in US)
-Germans were white legally but still targeted
-Enemy abroad was Germany
-Germans, radicals, targeted
-Anti Radicals, anti Communism
-Labor Strikes (1919)
-First Red Scare
-Fears of German incursions
-There was a literacy test which passed in 1917, that mainly applied to Europe (since the Asiatic Barred Zone didn't allow Asians), the idea was that if you had more education would be less likely to be a public charge in the US

1917 Immigration Act

1917

-Implemented a literacy test
-Charged head tax of $8
-Created the WWI Mexican Agricultural Labor Program (1917-1921) -- labor demand during war
-Viewed as a major defeat for restrictionists
-72,862 workers entered US under this legislation
-Basis for the Bracero Program of WWII
-Creates Asiatic Barred Zone

WWI Program for Mexican Workers (1917-1921)

1917 - 1921

What it did:
-Ensured temporary status of workers
-Delayed the workers' compensation until after they returned to Mexico to prevent permanent residence in the United States
-Only work for agriculture, railroads, mining, construction industries

Who it helped:
-Economic benefits for the southwestern industries
-Kept wages low for corporate profit

Background:
-Was supposed to last no more than 6 months but lasted four years instead
-In 1921, Congress gives option for adjustment of status -- Mexicans could stay as legal residents only if their employer paid a head tax

Implications/Effects:
-In practice, many temporary workers stayed without adjustment of status (of the 70,000 migrants)
-WWI border was more enforced
-This program reflects the large role of the US government in Mexican migration, as they recruited workers
-Mexican migration was not a result of simply push-pull factors or economic reasons (some push factors: religious persecution, revolution, no land for people and only for elites, wages are higher in the US)
-"Moral bankruptcy" of American immigration enforcement policy -- contradictory and hypocritical policy (people who were "legal" were now "illegal" in 1924
-Many restrictionists who supported Asian exclusion and restrictions on Southern and Eastern European immigration were the same policymakers who supported the importation of Mexican workers based on the assumption that Mexican workers were temporary and could be easily deported
-Stopped because of the AFL put pressure on them, arguing that there is a supply of American workers; also Hawaii sugar growers (?)

1921 Immigration Act

1921

-Quota for immigration based on 3% of each group present in the United States in the 1910 census
-350,000 ceiling on immigration (not including Latin America because they were not part of the quota system)

1924 Border Patrol

1924

-Lax enforcement for temporary Mexican workers because of powerful employers who depended on them
-Designed as one measure to limit Mexican immigration in absence of direct or explicit measures doing so
-BP didn’t just enforce immigration laws but also prohibition, plant quarantine, neutrality, Dyer act, white slave traffic act; deterred European, Asian, and Mexican illegal immigration/entry under various provisions of 1924 Immig Act
-Visa System: strict, people had to apply, number of visas given to Mexican nationals was cut in half during the early 1920s, couldn’t even come legally
-Act of March 4 1929: criminal charges meant a person could not reenter the US

Interests:
-US capitalists/employers depended on Mexican labor; agriculture in South West; in growing seasons the BP was less strict
-Once Chinese were excluded, the labor demands increased for Japanese, Indians, Filipinos, and Mexicans
-Mexicans were considered white for purposes of naturalization
-Restrictionists
-Mexican government

Benign neglect: Lack of federal appropriations for law enforcement, eventually funded $1 million
- Officials could only speak English
- Had nowhere to live
- No training
- No uniforms
- Racist
- Topography issues
- Lack of professionalism

1924 Immigration Act

1924

What it was:
-Known for the National Origins system
-Quota based on 2% of each group's population in the 1890 census (there was a shift after 1896 from Northern & Western European immigrants to Southern & Eastern European immigrants)
-300,000 ceiling on immigration (still not including Latin America)
-Completed Asian exclusion (now Japanese were also excluded) on the basis of Asians being ineligible for citizenship, therefore they should not be allowed to enter
-Primarily targeted Southern and Eastern European immigrants
-Western hemisphere is unrestricted

Significance:
-dramatically reduces immigration from Southern and Eastern europe
-reflects the HEIGHT of ANGLO-SAXONISM, Scientific racism, Post War nativism
-Opposition spends next four decades fighting for the overhaul of national origins quota which remain in place till 1965

Background:
-Informed by eugenics and anglo-saxonism
-Demise of the melting pot ideal
-Justify literacy test, head tax, quota system with the hierarchy of desirable immigrants based on race
-Rise of Communism abroad and at home
-Post-war labor militancy
-Palmer raids and the Red Scare
-Mexicans were cheap labor source for US employers (esp. in agribusiness, canneries, RR, mining) -- part of why they were not excluded or restricted
-Pushed and constructed by Representative Albert Johnson (R-WA) (Was head of the Eugenics Research Association at the time, and was very anti-immigrant and anti-radical)
-Ngai argues that this law helped solidify certain racialized images and narratives of specific groups (Asians were viewed as FOREIGN ALIENS)

Important Figures:
-Rep. Albert Johnson (R-WA)

Repatriation & Great Depression (1930s)

Approx. 1930 - 1939

What it did:
-Both Mexican nationals and US citizens were deported
-Ad hoc enforcement, not systematic
-Voluntary -- could return; Deported -- could not return, at least for a while
-Up to 1 million Mexicans and their US born children in the 1930s were repatriated (400,000 of this number were from CA)
-From 1930 to 1939, Mexicans constituted 46.3% of all people deported from the US even though Mexicans only comprised less than 1% of the total US population
-2 main groups targeted by repatriation were Mexicans and Filipinos

Background:
-Great Depression created a racist climate based on scapegoating of Mexicans by unemployed white workers, labor unions (mostly white), government officials, and the media
-Mexicans weren't really on much welfare but were stereotyped as such
-The GD revived nativism in the form of employment discrimination, scapegoating Chicanos of CA, etc.
-Repatriation was sponsored by the Mexican government
-WWII ends the Great Depression

Big moment:
-La Placita raids -- immigration officials ambushed and barricaded a public park which is part of the overall cimate of fear and terrorism from government

Effects/implications:
-LA Repatriation drives became model for repatriation drives across the country (by 1933 LA had already done 15)

WWII (1939-1945)

1939 - 1945

Effects:
-Ends the Great Depression
-Increase in government spending
-Full employment
-Economic boom
-Wartime labor shortages spark intense demand for labor
-Transformation of the American labor force (1940-1947 20% of Americans moved for better jobs, esp. African Americans, Native Americans, women)
-Lots of internal migration (ie. African Americans -- during WWI it was the Great Migration north and during WWII the West becomes new destination)

Race/ethnicity/national identity:
-Revival of cultural pluralism (government by consent, ideological notion of nation and citizenship, more inclusive -- could relate to Gleason)
-Hyphenism was accepted, you could be both (while inclusive for white Europeans, it was more exclusionary towards people of color)
-Jim Crow Laws (Plessy v. Ferguson 1896). black people made 39% of what white people made, fewer than 5% of African -Americans could vote, voter suppression despite the 15th amendment
-African American wartime aims: wanted the "Double V" of fighting against discrimination at home and fascism abroad
-Before entering WWII, FDR passes executive order 8802 in 1941 that declares no discrimination in employment of workers in the defense industries or government based on race, creed, color or national origin

Bracero Program (1942-1964)

1942 - 1964

What it did:
-Allowed legal temporary Mexican migration to the US
-Lasts for 22 years (very long program)
-US government invited Mexicans
-5 million enter the US
-delayed compensation until after return to Mexico

Effects:
-Largest foreign worker program in the US

Background:
-Powerful Southwestern growers and their congressional representatives
-Was an emergency wartime measure
-Mostly Democrats that supported (same ones, like McCarran, who supported national origins quota)
-Differences between Bracero and the WWI program: lasted 22 years, there were almost 5 million workers, generated an unprecedented wave of undocumented immigration
-Lasted so long because of political backing (powerful McCarran--Senate Judiciary committee chair), profits (remittances of $30 million and for the growers' profits)
-Was the form of a safety valve from overpopulation in Mexico, unemployment, violence, civil unrest
-Created by Congress

Who benefited:
-The Growers benefited from the fact that workers didn't have rights, they were temporary, couldn't form unions, had total control, predictable source of labor

What Braceros got:
-Braceros were legal when they entered
-Workers had contract guarantees of wages, dealt with horrible living conditions, discrimination; they'd complain to consular officials; they became a new class of undocumented immigrants when they left contracted jobs which made them vulnerable
-Bracero program was pretty competitive (1/10 people who applied got a contract) and involved a lot of red tape, so there were many people who entered US unauthorized

Why did it end:
-Ends because of activism against the abuses, reading on the truck crash, agribusiness can't defend self against the accusations,
-1963 Chualar incident
-Harvest of Shame documentary shown during Thanksgiving, shift in public opinion, people view the treatment as horrendous, pushes for social change
-during the time of civil rights (parallels between truck crash and church bombing)

Significance:
-encouraged temporary migration
-reflects central role of US government in promoting immigration
-the end of Bracero led to the rise of latino threat narrative

War Brides Act of 1945

1945 - 1948

(Dec. 1945-Dec. 1948)
What it did:
-Allowed US servicemen in Europe and Asia who married abroad to bring wives to the US on a non-quota basis and without regard to racial exclusion laws

Background:
-During WWII: US military stationed in Europe and Pacific Front (China and the Philippines)
-During the Cold War: US military stationed in Japan, Korea, Philippines, and Vietnam

Effects:
-Single largest female migration from Britain
-Asian War Brides supposedly proved American racial democracy, and the nation's ability to welcome and incorporate people of all races, backgrounds, and cultures
-Part of respectability politics and racial hierarchy during the Civil Rights Movement: used against African Americans to say that these groups achieved the American Dream so why can't black people, basically ignores structural racism and perpetuates the model minority myth
-During WWII: Largely European immigrants (over 125,000 from dozens of countries)
-During Cold War: Growing number from Asia

Other laws:
1946 -- Alien Fiances and Fiances (or Soldier Bride) Acts
1946 -- Chinese War Brides Act
1947 -- Amendment to War Brides Act that made Japanese, Koreans, and other excluded Asian wives eligible to enter the US as war brides
1950 -- Alien Spouses and Children Act

The Cold War (1947-1991)

1947 - 1991

Effects for America's image:
-America's image became more important
-Soviet propaganda critiquing US for undemocratic policies
US had to focus on making the country look more democratic and free
-Truman: refugee policy as an extension of foreign policy and image on the world scene

Goals:
-Liberal proposals for immigration reform proposing modifications to the national origins quota to make it easier for Europeans to immigrate

Effects on attitudes:
-Cold War revived nativist fears that were dissipating during WWII under the guise of anti-Communism
-These fears were bipartisan: Republicans had the House of un-American Activities Committee, and the trials of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs; the Democrats had Truman's employee loyalty program in 1947, and Patt McCarran's Internal Security Act in 1950

Important people:
-Patt McCarran was a rabid anti-communist, anti-semitic, controlled immigration policy, was in control from the 1940s until 1953, son of Irish immigrants, blocked immigration reform, supported quota system, feared threat of displaced persons in Europe having a communist insurgency
-Joseph McCarthy created McCarthyism, fears of communist infiltration

Policies:
-McCarran Internal Security Act (1950): Required communist orgs to register with government, could be deported if you were part of communist orgs
-Establishing Refugee Policies (US and the UN estimated 40 million displaced people in Europe)
-McCarran and restrictionists versus Truman and the liberals
-Truman admits 40,000 refugees through executive order in 1945
-Congressional liberals call for admission of 400,000 refugees over four years but fails to pass (Stratton Bill) which they argued would still retain the quota system and refugees would be mostly Christian
-Congress resists Jewish refugees for fears of "public charge"

Policy implications:
-Refugee policy marked by showdown between Congress vs. the White House

Displaced Persons Act of 1948

1948 - 1952

-McCarran's Displaced Persons Act of 1948 (expired 1952)
-admitted 200,000 mostly from Europe
-Charged refugee admissions to national origins quotas
-In practice, excluded admission of Jewish refugees because only people in camps by December 1945 deadline could be admitted

1952 McCarran Walter Act

1952

What it does:
-Preserves the national origins quota system and favors Northern and Western Europeans
-Includes preference for skilled immigrants and family reunification
-Incorporates Internal Security Act of 1950 which strengthened the federal government's right to deport people with subversive beliefs
-Removes bar on Asian immigration through Asian Pacific-Triangle quota system (very limited numbers allowed)
-Abolishes the racial qualifications for citizenship established under the Naturalization Act of 1790 (removes free white person's clause)

Effects:
-This law benefits Japanese (?)
-By 1952, these are the people who could be citizens: free whites, African-Americans, natural born and US citizens, Native Americans, Chinese, Indians, Filipinos, and Mexicans (under white persons definition)

Significance:
-makes US citizenship race-neutral
-was a cold war centered measure

Liberal Reaction:
-Immigration reform as a Cold War imperative (Mary Duziak's argument)
-Truman and Liberals believe immigration reform upholds US "moral leadership in the world"
-US acceptance of refugees provided safety valve for Europe, which was at risk of allowing unrest to develop and perfect breeding ground for communism in Europe
-US laws would bolster anti-American sentiments, contribute to communism
-Truman sets up a committee, doesn't get re-elected; Eisenhower carries out ideas -- Refugee Relief Act (1953-1956)

Refugee Relief Act (1953-1956)

1953 - 1956

What it does:
-Defines "refugee"/displaced persons (DP)
-Means any person in a country or area which is neither Communist nor Communist-dominated, who because of persecution, fear of persecution, natural calamity or military operations is out of his usual place of abode and unable to return thereto, who has not been firmly resettled, and who is in urgent need of assistance for the essentials of life or for transportation.
-Shaped as anti-communist effort but allows people who are from Iron Curtain countries, but vetted and fleeing

Operation Wetback (May-June 1954)

May 1954 - June 1954

What it was:
-Response to the Bracero program
-Developed a multi-tiered enforcement strategy
-Enforcement through removal/deportation, legalization/amnesty, the Bracero program/guest worker program
-Operation Wetback was a compromise to allow INS to get by with limited resources, enforce the laws just enough to relieve popular anti-immigrant sentiments, avoid upsetting Mexico, and sustain the support of the farm bloc and appease Mexican government
-Special Mobile Forces, which began in CA, teamed up air and land groups that reported, detained, and repatriated undocumented immigrants to interior Mexico; used leftover military equipment

Effects:
-Set the pattern for the rest of the 20th century
-Similarities between the Operation Wetback and the Repatriation drives of the 1930s
-Pushed growers to use legal immigration
-By June 30, 1955 over 1 million people of Mexican descent were deported
-Claimed success (increase in legal Bracero recruitment cited as measure of success)

Operation Peter Pan (1960-1962)

1960 - 1962

-Cuban children can come to the US
-Over 14,000 Cuban children were sent to the US by their parents to avoid communist indoctrination, compulsory military service, etc.
-Many of these were children of middle-class and working-class families
-Sponsored by US Catholic churches; stayed with family members or foster homes until parents arrived
-Largely unpubliciized for fear of backlash from political people and Cubans

Cuban Refugee Program (1961)

1961

JFK creates it
Provides medical care, food, assistance for Cuban refugees

1963 Chualar bus crash

1963

-Sparks outrage over horrible conditions of Braceros
-within the context of Civil Rights Movement, this was impetus or catalyst for Chicano movement

1965 Immigration Act

1965

1965 Immigration Act (takes effect in 1968)
What it does:
-eliminated national origins quota
-by-country quotas
-preferences of skills (quota) and family relationships (non-quota)
-Eastern hemisphere gets a 170,000 ceiling (80% family reunification; 20% occupational)
-Western hemisphere gets its first numerical limit of 120,000 (no country limits, no preferences based on family or occupation) -- Number of visas given to Mexico drops dramatically to 20,000 slots, making it difficult to legally immigrate after 1965

Background:
-Senator Pat McCarran dies in 1954, and Rep. Francis Walter dies in 1963
-Johnson works to persuade cooperation of immigration committee heads in House and Senate
-Since Truman, all presidents took liberal immigration stances primarily because of the Cold War
Johnson signs the Hart-Celler Act October 3, 1965
-Celler and others predicted this bill would not change racial demographics of US; expected it to primarily benefit Europeans, not really Asians or Africans because there were fewer living in US to begin with -- they were wrong, there were many unintended consequences
-This act was passed under the interests of the political elite, because as a gallup poll showed, the people didn't want reform
-Passed in the context of Civil Rights Movement: Birmingham campaign, JFK's civil rights speech, March on Washington, JFK death, LBJ presidency, Freedom Summer, 1964 Civil Rights Act, Great Society, then Immigration Act of 1965

Implications/effects:
-Mexicans stayed in US rather than return because it was too risky
-Asian immigration used family and occupational preferences
-Organized labor comes to support immigration
-Executive support for immigration reform
-Passes with a cross-party majority
-Bracero program ended in 1964, was a legal pathway but once it ended that pathway got cut off, is what caused the surge in undocumented immigration
-change of label, not the amount of people, there was already circular migration patterns set up -- "illegal" Mexican immigration as a national security threat was a POLITICAL STRATEGY
-JFK promoted jobs, family, first come-first serve
-People who were against the national origins quota: Asian American, Southern and Eastern Europeans (activists, votes)
-After 1965, there was a higher percentage of Latin Americans than Europeans
-15.53 million immigrants were admitted (1965-1991)
-Immigration constituted 11% of the total US pop. growth between 1960 and 1970, growing to 33% from 1970 to `1980, and to 39% from 1980 to 1990
-Huge increase in Asian immigration to US
-Immigration as Civil Rights -- gets at the intentionality of the law: If not US citizen, how do you benefit? Not everyone faces same issues...

Cuban Adjustment Act (1966)

1966

Enables Cubans to become legal US residents after 1 year

1973 US Leaves Vietnam

1973

Post-Vietnam War Refugees: Legal milestones (1975-1980)

1975 - 1980

-US-Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1975
-UN Geneva Refugee Conference of 1979
-US Refugee Act of 1980 -- definition of refugee, why does it matter?

1980 Refugee Act

1980

-Congress was mad about the executive branch controlling refugee policy
-Raised annual ceiling from 17,400 to 50,000/yr
-Creates process for reviewing and adjusting refugee ceiling to meet emergencies
-Required annual consultation between Congress and President
-Defined Refugee as person with "well-founded fear of persecution" (adopted from UN's definition)

1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act

1986

-Under Reagan
-Implements sanctions for employers who knowingly hire undocumented workers
-Increased enforcement at the US borders
-Legalization of certain agro workers
-Legalization of undocumented aliens who had been continuously unlawfully present since 1982

Immigration Waves

Famine Migration Wave (1815-1844)

1815 - 1844

-Irish lived in cities, couldn't afford to move west to farmland
-English control over Ireland, religious persecution
-Potato Famine

1840s N & W European Wave

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1850

-Huge influx of Irish and Germans in the 1840s and the 1850s because of the potato famine, expensive rent, political upheaval in Germany
-Irish moved to urban areas while Germans moved to rural areas
-1830-1860 Irish and Germans made up 2/3 of all new arrivals

Post-Famine Migration (1845-1860)

1845 - 1860

Chinese Wave (1852-1882)

1852 - 1882

-300,000 Chinese people enter the US
-Push-pull: Overpopulation in China during the 1840s; Political conflicts in 1850s; Opium wars, Western Imperialism, Chain migration; Gold Rush
-Mostly Chinese men, single, poor, sojourning, settling in rural mining camps

1896 S & E European wave

1896

Southern and eastern Europeans exceed northern and western; 80% of all immigrants are southern and eastern European

Push factors:
-did not become industrialized yet like the N & W Europeans
-There was more political and economic stability in the N & W
-Population growth in the S & E

Pull factors:
-US had industrialization
-US had the Homestead Act of 1862 which gave you land from federal gov't
-Railroads made traveling easier
-Steamship

First Cuban Wave (1959-1962)

1959 - 1962

-"Golden Exile"
-Elite migrants who fled right after the revolution
-many believed their exile would be temporary
-250,000 or 22% of total

Second Cuban Wave (1965-1973)

1965 - 1973

-"Freedom flights"
-mostly elites and middle class
-300,000 or 28% of total
-US commissions it

First Vietnamese Wave (1973-1975)

1973 - 1975

-US sponsored evacuation
-very disorganized
-mostly military personnel and urban, well-educated professional elites who were associated with US military or South Vietnamese government

Second Vietnamese Wave (late 1970s)

Approx. 1975 - Approx. 1979

-Boat people
-from rural areas
-less educated
-spent time in refugee camps in other countries before coming to the US
-people set out on makeshift rafts to hope to be found or find land somewhere
-Included Cambodians

Third Cuban Wave (1980)

1980

-Mariel Boatlift
-Lower class immigrants
-125,000 or 11.5% of total

Fourth Cuban Wave (1994)

1994

-Balsero Crisis
-Lower class immigrants
-36,000 or 3.3% of total

Issues in other countries

1898 Spanish American War

1898

Teller amendment (US can't annex Cuba)

Batista (1933-1944)

1933 - 1944

Takes power in coup

1934 US-Cuba

1934

-US abandons right to intervene in Cuban affairs

Batista re-takes power (1952-1959)

1952 - 1959

1959 Castro

1959

Castro launches coup, becomes Prime Minister

US-Cuba (1961-1962)

1961 - 1962

-US breaks diplomatic relations with Cuba
-Bay of Pigs invasion
-Cuban Missile crisis

1963 Embargo

1963

Kennedy prohibits US citizens from traveling to or making financial transactions with Cuba (embargo)

Cambodia, War with Vietnam (1975-1979)

1975 - 1979

Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot, killing fields, War with Vietnam, all the bombs dropped in Cambodia destabilized the country and Pol Pot takes power

Pol Pot
-purge Cambodians with close connections to Vietnam because Vietnam trained Cambodians
-1977: Cambodia invades Vietnam and then Vietnam invades Cambodia
-Pol Pots own vision of communism: purge intellectuals, agricultural society, pushes people to country side, peasant socialism, work in horrible conditions, labor, classless society, starvation, killed by gov't

Mao, China sides with Cambodian gov't and invades Vietnam

Lots of displacement and fleeing

1976 SRV

1976

Unified Vietnamese state founded = Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Movements

1850s Know Nothing Party

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1860

-goal of restoring, strengthening, purifying, cleaning America
-felt duty to teach the world
-America as threatened paradise
-upwardly mobile, white, male, protestant, over 21
-believed in legal limitations on extension of slavery and liquor consumption
-wanted to lengthen the residency requirements before naturalization from 5 to 12 years
-urged voters to select only native born citizens for office
-STILL BELIEVED CATHOLICS COULD ASSIMILATE SO THEY WEREN’T EXCLUDED
-Their enemy was Irish Catholics
-There were real issues but they blamed them on immigrants
-Industrialization, urbanization, chaos, changes
-PARTY OF FEAR movements that are anti-foreigner in fear that they will threaten America’s moral character, culture, safety, and security

Imperialism (1880s-1890s)

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1900

-Britain was still the biggest empire, lots of competition over the world and international standing
-Empire vs. Expansive republicanism; colonial rule vs. tutelage in self-gov’t; British exploitation vs. US teaching and uplifting and letting country be independent
Ex. 1902 Philippine organic act, 1916 Philippine Autonomy (Jones act), 1934 Philippine Independence act, 1946 Treaty of Manila

Anglo-Saxonism (1880s-1890s)

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1900

-Earlier forms included positive celebration of culture, race, nation
-only the best Europeans migrated to the US
-Assimilation was possible

Shifted in the 1880s-1890s
-changed to a pessimistic, defensive construction, focused on threat posed by other races to their own
-unfit for self government
-problem of foreignness
-blood disease
-assimilation wasn't possible
-the solution was to restrict immigration

Important People:
-Francis A. Walker

Eugenics
-social darwinism, scientific racism
-Three European races (Northern/teutonic, central/alpines, southern/meditarranean)
-Race suicide/blood disease

Americanization & Progressive movement

Civil Rights Movement

1954 - 1968