HISTORY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Events

Mesopotamia

Approx. 3500 B.C. - Approx. 2000 B.C.

Fertile Cresent-asyrians/babylonians/sumerians-waring city states
writing
polytheism

stateless societies

Approx. 3500 bc - Approx. 1750 ce

Ancient Egypt

Approx. 3100 BCE - Approx. 2686 BCE

Nubia
Kush
polytheism
writing

Bantu Migrations

Approx. 3000 BCE - Approx. 1100 CE

3000 bce-1000 bce-along rivers
increases after 1000 because of iron
language

Trade from Beginning of time to 600 CE

2500 BC - 600 CE

silk roads-5000 miles
China to Med. Sea

Animism & Shamanism

Approx. 2500 BCE - Present

africa

Indus River Civilization

2300 BCE - 1750 BCE

city on grid
written language, but not decipherable
evidence of trade with Mesopotamia

Zorastrianism

Approx. 2000 BCE - Present

China

Judaism

Approx. 1800 BC - Present

Middle East

Shang Dynasty

Approx. 1600 BCE - Approx. 1100 BCE

oracle bones
family-ancestors
bronze

Hinduism

Approx. 1500 BC - Present

India

Vedic Age

1500 BCE - 500 BCE

Hindu Vedas-->Vedic--> Hinduism

Olmecs

Approx. 1500 BC - Approx. 400 BC

stone heads
quipa

Aryans

1499 BCE - 322 BCE

caste system

Zhou Dynasty

1046 BCE - 256 BCE

Confucianism-five classics
mandate of heaven
Daoism
iron weapons

Chavin

Approx. 900 BC - Approx. 200 BC

llama
mita
roads/bridges

Greek

900 BC - 30 BC

centralized

Buddhism

Approx. 600 BCE - Present

India

Beginning of time to 600 BCE

600 BCE

Daoism

Approx. 500 bc - Present

China

Persian Empire

Approx. 500 BC - Approx. 300 BCE

Zoorastrianism
roads
localized
Judaism
Cyrus the Great

Mauryan Empire

321 BCE - 185 BCE

Ashoka-buddhism
Buddhism
fell because of invasions
Hinduism dominates life-CASTE system
regionalism
decentralized
location=key (susceptible to invasions and trade with Romans/China)

Qin Dynasty

221 BC - 206 BC

Great Wall of China
legalism
Confucianism
writing

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

Confucianism/bureacracy-civil service exams
paper, gunpowder, iron
Daoism
silk road (trade)
buddhism

Mochees

200 BCE - 800 CE

Shintoism

Approx. 200 BCE - Present

Japan

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476 AD

centralized
East becomes Byzantine
West become Holy Roman Empire

Christianity

Approx. 30 CE - Present

Middle East
introduced to Africa during 1450-1750
CAtholism is key in Europe during 600-1450

Mayans

Approx. 300 - Approx. 900

calendar
maize

Gupta Empire

320 ce - 550 ce

law code
fell because of invasions
Hinduism dominates life-CASTE system
regionalism
decentralized
location=key (susceptible to invasions and trade with Romans/China)

Byzantine Empire

330 - 1453

absolutism
Justinian
Great Schism
law codes
Constantinople
bureacracy
Hagia Sofia

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618

Grand canal
reunited China
great wall bigger
forced labor
buddhism
authoritarian-bureacracy

600 BCE to 600 CE

600 CE

Trade from 600-1450

600 - 1450

West Hemi: isolation (regionalism)
East Hemi: Silk Road (buddhism)/sub-saharan/trans-saharan (islam)/Indian Ocean (buddhism)
Bantu Migrations-west africa to SE-swahili trading cities
Ibn Battuta
Marco Polo
Zeng He

Islam

610 - Present

Middle East
Sunni vs Shia
introduced to Africa during 600-1450--> mix with African culture

Tang Dynasty

618 CE - 907 CE

equal field system
tributary states
civil service exams
military-expansion
buddism (pre wu-growing) (post wu-backlash)
junks

Ummayyad caliphate

661 - 750

theocracy
Indian Ocean
largest non-contiguous empire in history
Suni

Swahili City States

700 - 1400

from Bantu Migrations
decline because of Portugal-disrupt-cut off from trade--> Indian Ocean=hostile

Nara

710 - 794

tributary state of China---increased contact with China---Taika reforms
increased contact with China---increase in Buddhism
Godas
language (mix with Chinese characters)

Abbassid Caliphate

750 CE - 1258 CE

theocracy
Shi
house of wisdom
intellectual advancements
Crusades
Indian Ocean
Mongols

Feudalism in Japan

800 - 1868

Emperor (just figurehead)
Shogunate
Daimos
Samarai
peasants

Ghana

830 - 1235

Kievan Rus

882 CE - 1240 CE

Rurik (founder)
decentralized
influenced by Byzantine
trade with Byzantine
Expansionists-->fighting
fall to Mongols
Vladamir introduces Christianity in 900s-Russian Orthodoxy

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

not military concentrated-large bureacracy
footbinding
Buddhism
gentry class
Neo-Confucianism
technology-moveable type, weapons, naval
urbanization

Crusades

1095 - 1291

Middle East-contact with west

Aztec

Approx. 1200 AD - 1521 AD

Sun God
human sacrifice
militaristic
tribute
maize
written language
long distance trade/merchants
Tenochtitlan
chimampas

Incans

Approx. 1200 - Approx. 1500

Quecha (only spoken)
Mita
split inheritance
roads
UNIFICATION
terrace irrigation
Sun God
militaristic-expansion
no long distance trade

Mongols

1206 - Approx. 1440

Delhi Sultanate

1206 - 1526

hinduism

Mali

1230 AD - 1400 AD

Mansa Musa

Golden Horde

Approx. 1240 - Approx. 1400

isolation
princes paid tribute to mongols (vassal state-->feudalism)

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

Mongols
silk road revived
no civil service exams-no gentry class
merchants increase

Renaissance

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1500

info from crusades --> Abbasids (House of Wisdom)

Bubonic Plague

1347 - 1351

ended European feudalism
killed 1/3 Europe population

Ottoman Empire

1350 - 1918

Sunni
every country in ME, except Iran
absolute
gunpowder empire
art and architecture
rival with Safavid
Tanzimat reforms (1860s-westernization)
decline-nationalism/wwi/over extension
fall leads to development of nation states (persia becomes Iran)--> land under control of league of nations (mainly England and France)

Ming Dynasty

1368 CE - 1644 CE

silver trade
trade
insulation
civil service exams
Zeng He-expeditions
expeditions in beginning but then stop

Timur

1370 - 1405

Mongols in India (but not really in India, just took some land)

European arrival to Japan

Approx. 1400 - Approx. 1600

Jesuits-tried to convert

Warring States

Approx. 1400 - Approx. 1600

600 to 1450

1450

Colonization of Latin America

1450 - 1750

CONTEXT-exploration
Spain/Portugal
Columbian Exchange --> PERSIAN changed
Atlantic slave trade
encomienda system
viceroy
silver trade-exploited
not on own terms
less political independence
forced to convert to Christianity
natives at bottom of social ladder

Tzardom in Russia

Approx. 1450 - 1917

Ivan IV
Ivan III
feudalism!!!!!
expansion!!!
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
absolute
1860-1917: attempting to industrialize (railroads), but never full blown capitalists/still largely agricultural
Crimean War (1850s)

Feudalism in Russia

Approx. 1450 - 1860

Trade from 1450-1750

1450 - 1750

Columbian Exchange
atlantic slave trade
silver
world becomes connected
migration (forced and on own)
British East India Company
trade increases for China (opium)
major colonization

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

Europe colonizing

Songhai

1468 - 1591

replaces Mali

Atlantic Slave Trade

Approx. 1500 - 1807

European justification: social Darwinism/white man's burden/ civilizing the savages
led to abolishment of slavery (last-1888 Brazil)
abolishment of slavery led to indentured servants
population does not really change
role of women does-less men(b/c men taken as slaves) leads to polygamy

Columbian Exchange

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1600

new crops to Africa (corn, peanuts, potatoes)
diseases to North America
gun/slave cycle in Africa-violence increases
From Old World: Sugar cane, bananas, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, syphilis, beans, rice, measles, wheat, small pox
From New World: coffee, pineapple, tomato, yellow fever, squash, tobacco, potatoes, turkey, corn
Europe demographics-Increase-more money, better living conditions, middle class grows
Europe economics-$-gain markets
-gain colonies
-gain resources
Europe politics-wil change
Latin American demographics-Decrease (native)-disease
migration(forced and choice) and slaves
Mixed race (new)
LA politics-Loss of political independence
LA economics-Part of global economy
Loss of economic independence
African demographics-Not drastic increase/decrease
Obvious change with men:women-men being sent away to Latin America
African politics-will change
African economics-Increase
slave trade

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

questioning Catholic Church and ideas
Copernicus-heliocentrism
Galileo
Louis XIV-total control
Bacon
Descartes
Newton

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1722

Shia
present day Iran
absolute
rival with ottoman
Gunpowder empire
art and architecture
religion is politics-islam

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Martin Luther

Muhgal Empire

Approx. 1550 - 1757

Gunpowder empire
Babur (founder)
Akbar
muslims rule in India
urbanization
continuation of Delhi Sultanate (Muslim empire)
Increased trade
Taj MAhal-art and architecture
British East India company monopoly

Global Economy!

1571

SILVER

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

total control

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1868

strengthened feudalism= strengthened shogunate
isolation (after contact with Jesuits)

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

Opium Wars
imperialism
Treaty of Nanjing
Self-strengthening movement
population growth
boxer rebellion
Taiping rebellion

Enlightenment

1685 - 1815

philosophes began to question society
believe that church, economic and social systems could be improved
equality
freedom
toleration
education
Voltaire
Beccaria
Rousseau
Smith
Diderot

Glorious Revolution

1688

James II-had san and daughter->parliament asked Mary and husband (William) to take out James->James leaves to France
debating if should go to parliamentary government
John Locke-tabula rasa

1450 to 1750

1750

Age of Imperialism

1750 - 1900

African tribal lines ignored
Berlin Conference
Belgium
England
France
Italy
Netherlands
Germany
Africa/Europe
Scramble for Africa
context: industrial rev/need for resources because Latin American freed
Europe has new weapons to conquer (b/c of industrialization)
Australia (Aborigine)/New Zeland (Maori)/Canada (Iroquois)
-all white settler colonies
-enviornmentally friendly to Europeans
-all places had natives
-all eventually colonized by England
-natives killed by disease and warfare
-Austr-first settled as penel colony
-NZ-natives resist

Latin American Revolutions

1750 - 1900

Context-enlightenment
independence!!!
Haiti-first
causes-nationalism and inspired by revolutions in Europe
Goals-social equality, economic and political independence, economic reform
Outcomes-economic distress and military regimes and dictatorships
Mexico-Spanish
Brazil-Portuguese
Haiti-slave revolt

Trade from 1750-1900

1750 - 1900

Increase contact
China's door blown open
Japan's doors open
end slave trade/slavery
Migration of indentured servants

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

massive transformation
water power
steam power
electricity
more urbanization
transformation of society- suburbs grow; jobs; over crowded; bad working and living condotions; crime- police and fire departments; governments had to regulate; disease
economic changes- steady growth of economy; goods being mass produced
started in England
capitalism grows
Socialism and Marxism

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

political revolution led by middle class against own government
conservatism
liberalism
nationalism
3rd estate-fed up with over taxation

Napolean

1799 - 1815

turns France into an empire
tries to conquer all of Europe-->down fall
ideas from enlightenment and french revolution-taxes=equitable; one law code for all people; no feudalism

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

undid all of Napolean's conquered places (outside of France)
Concert of Europe- check on nationalism; keeps peace for 40 years; concerned with balance of power; set up alliance within Europe; says the countries will act in concert to prevent another revolution and another Napoleanic era

Matthew Perry

1853

arrived in Tokyo Bay-1953
Treaty of Kanagawa-ssured the good treatment of shipwrecked U.S. seamen, permitted U.S. ships to fuel and supply at two Japanese ports, and arranged for a U.S. diplomat to reside in Japan to further trade relations
OPENED UP JAPAN

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

broke concert of Europe-only France and England really step up
Russians invade ottomans b/c they wanted a warm water port
Russians lost-wake up call

Sepoy Rebellion

1857

given guns that had been processed from animals-against religion-angered them-revolted
huge failure

The British Raj

1858 - 1947

colonization of India by England (British East India Company)

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

Westernization, but keep culture through education
military: based on Germany
feudalism ends
rapid industrialization
open up to trade
government goes from feudal to more democratic

Indian National Congress

1885

founded date

1750 to 1900

1900

trade from 1900-present

1900 - Present

increase contact
globalization

Young Turk Revolution

1908

for reforms/modernization but want to keep culture

World War I

1914 - 1918

mother countries used colonies for supplies/soldiers
Long term causes: 1870-1914
Great Britain
Domestic issue: keep industrializing, colonizing, improving military-#1in all
International: balance of power in Europe
Germany
Domestic: trying to catch up with England; Von Bismark
Foreign: worries about France (France lost Alsace and Lorraine to Germany) → The Alliance System
France
Domestic: government (causes social division)
Foreign: Germany-want revenge
Russia
Domestic: large army, not supplied; large size; just a mess!
Foreign: want warm water ports
Austria-Hungary
Domestic/Foreign: nationalism-large and diverse
Causes:
The Alliance System
Triple Entente (allied)
England
France
Russia
Triple Alliance (central)
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Italy-switches sides
Ottomans
Militarism and Arms Race
Intro to chemical gases
Economic and Imperial Rivalries
Aggressive Nationalism
Take military action to achieve a goal
pan-Slavism: the Balkans, 1914
Countdown to War
First Moroccan Crisis-1905
France got it in Berlin Conference, but Germany wants
Germany sent warships to MOrocco → France freaks out and goes to ally of England → Eng threatens Germany → Germany backs down
Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina-1908
Serbs live here; annexed by Austria-Hungary
Serbia now hates Austria-Hungary
Serbia allies with Russia
Second Moroccan Crisis-1911
Germany tries again (just like first one)
The Spark-assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Heir to Austrian empire
Sent to Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo)
The Black Hand
Serbian nationalist group
Came to Bosnia to kill
Gavrilo Princip-shooter
Austria-Hungary goes to ally Germany
Germany gives them a blank check
AH gives Serbia an ultimatum → Serbia says no → AH declares war on Serbia
The War
Italian Front
Eastern Front
Russia keeps losing
Western Front
Trenches
From 1914-begin of 1918-long drawn out bloody stalemate
Technology
America
November 11, 1918-Germany surrenders
Treaty of Versailles @ Paris Peace Conference-supposed to support peace

Bolshevik Revolution

November 1917

Russia turns communist

USSR

1922 - 1991

Cold War
Bolshevik Revolution led to this
Gorbachev (glasnost and perestroika)
Soviet-Afghan War
Satellite countries pull away
nationalize everything
collectivization of agriculture
5 years plan
Lenin
Stalin
communist

World War II

1939 - 1945

mother countries used colonies for supplies/soldiers
Road to War
-Hitler from 1933 to 1935
--wants to expand Germany’s borders (Lebensraum) → to do this build up military (against treaty of versailles → League of Nations does not react (wanted to avoid war; thought Hitler’s goal was limited to just Germany; thought decisions made after wwi were too harsh) → policy of appeasement
-Mussolini
--1936: Italy gets revenge on Ethiopia → this invasion caused Hitler to approach Mussolini and form Rome-Berlin axis
-1938-1939
--Hitler invades and annexes Austria (France and England gear up for war, but still practicing appeasement)
--Hitler invades Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) (Munich Pact- last appeasement)
--Germany takes over Czechoslovakia
--Nazi-Soviet Pact
--Germany invades Poland--starts war!!!

Decolonization of Africa

1945 - 1965

@ independence-little investment made in humans-led to problems at independence
Process
-high crop yields sustained by colonial rules
-reduction of wartime and famine
-limited industrialization
-state measure to promote family planning and birth control
-neocolonial economy: global economy dominated by industrialized nations
Issues afterwards
-caused large population growth in Niger (still continues to grow)
-death rates decline and birth rates rise (pop of Nigeria will grow to equal China’s today)
-not enough factories to employ population
-educated classes used position to benefit themselves at the expense of the rest of society
-lack sufficient resources and educated personnel to promote programs (high illiteracy rates especially among women → women dominated by male family members--likely to be less well fed, educated, and healthy)

Indian Independence

1947

Gandhi

Indian Partition

1947

India split into Pakistan
Muslim/Hindu conflict

Cold War

1947 - 1991

Roots
-Russian Revolution-turning communist
Russia Not invited to Paris peace conference (lose a lot)
-WWII
Allies did not trust Russia (did not tell about atomic bomb)
-USA refused to recognize legitmacy of government until 1933
-USA did not trust
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Great Purges
-A race for world influence
-Lack of trust → a real fear
USA thought USSR was going to spread its ideology
USSR thought USA and allies was going to invade
-ideologies did not agree
-USA foreign policy: containment
-brinkmanship
Mutually Assured Destruction
Germany-still divided-Berlin Airlift
-Space Race-USSR is better than US
-Nuclear Arms Race
Vietnam
-Ho Chi Minh (communist and nationalist)
-French Indochina War-result: divided at 17th parallel → South-Ngo Dinh Diem (“democratic”) and North-Ho Chi Minh (communists)
-Vietnam War
-Vietcong
-Vietminh (Ho Chi’s forces)

Apartheid

1948 - 1994

South Africa

Israel

1948

Balfour Declaration

Communism in China

1949 - Present

Mao Zedong
cultural revolution (1966-1976)
Great Leap forward-1958
Red Guard
Deng Xiaoping-open up China's borders-->Western investment into country-->only benefits elite
Tiananmen Square

Iranian Revolution

January 1978 - February 1979

move to theocracy

1900 to present

present