Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

1869 - 1948

-"one of the most remarkable and charismatic leaders of the twentieth century"
-grew up on a prosperous and pious Hindu household
-married at 13, went to study law in London
-Went to South Africa in 1893, and re-organized the class system, so that indians were not second class citezens

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

1876 - 1948

-lawyer who leafed the Muslim league
-warned that a unified India represented nothing less than a threat to the muslim faith and its indian community
-is thoughts reflected the divide in india between the Hindus and the Muslims

Indian National Congress


-was the greatest and most influential pf the struggles against Great Britians rule
--enlisted in the support of many promemeintet Hindus and Muslims
-wanted to work with Britain to self rule-India, but after WW1, they decided not to.

Jawaharlal Nehru

1889 - 1994

-he and gahndi urged all indians to act and feel as one nation, undivideded by communalism-

president Achmad Sukarno

1901 - 1970

-proudly proclaimed Bandung "the fist international conference of colored peoples in the history of mankind"

The Muslim League


-added a new current into the movement for for national liberation
-under British "encouragement"
-wanted independence for India
--worried that Hindu oppression and continues subjugation of India's substancial Muslim minority might replace British rule

Indira Gandhi

1917 - 1984

-Nehru's daughter and no relation to Gandhi.
-was the leader of the congress party
-Served as prime minister from 1966-77
--green revolution happened under her rule
-declared national emergency

Rajiv Gandhi

1944 - 1991

-Indira's son
-took over leadership in 1985
-offered reconciliation to the Sikhs
-assassinated by a terrorist in 1991 while trying to run for prime minister again

National Emergency in India

1975 - 1977

-pended democratic process
-started by Indira Gandhi
-she used it to forward birth control

Indian Election


-people voted against Indira even though she allowed the elections
-this as because of her forward thinking


African National Congress (ANC)


-also known as ANC
-formed in 1912
-Nelson Mandela was part of it
-published freedom charter, which proclaimed the ideal of multiracial democratic rule for south Africa.
-in 1961, many leaders were jailed

Nelson Mandela

1918 - 2013

-inspired direct action campaigns to protest apartheid
-was put in jail for for being a part of the ANC
-became president

anti-colonial rebellion in Kenya


British were fighting back to keep Kenya as their colony
demonstrated the complexity and difficulty of African decolonization
Settlers vs. Kenyans
Britian said that the Kenyans were radicals

Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1994

-means “separateness”
-made by the Afrikaners National Party
-made to control the resistive black population
-meant to serperate the blacks from the whites

Freedom Charter


-goals outright challenged white rule, black activists faced repercussion
-government declared all people who went against them communists
-protests increased in 1960. “the year of Africa”
-march 21, white police gunned down 69 blacks, and wounded 200
-“radical rasiscm”

Ghana becomes independent


-embolded and inspired other african nationalists movements
-more than 30 african countries followed Ghanas example and declared their independence over the next decade

organization of african unity


created in 1963 by 32 member states
wanted to prevent conflict that could lead to intervention from former colonial powers
promoted pan-african unity

F.W. de Klerk


-president of South Africa in 1989
-released Nelson Mandela from jail
-legalized ANC
-dismantled apartheid