The Cold War


Yalta Conference

Approx. February 4th 1945 - February 11th 1945

Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt agreed to demand Germany's unconditional surrender. Stalin agreed to permit free elections in Eastern Europe and to enter the Asian war against Japan. These agreements were kept secret, the revelations of the conference became controversial.

Marshall Plan

March 12th 1947 - June 5th 1947

Programme of economic aid by the United States to any European country. This plan was rejected by Stalin and any Eastern Bloc country accepting aid was reprimanded severely. The aid was only given to Western European Countries.

Berlin Blockade

June 24th 1948 - May 12th 1949

Russia's response to the merger of the French, USA, and UK partitions of Berlin was to cut rail links and roads to the sector. Western Berlin had no access to food and faced starvation. Food was brought by the US and the UK air planes, this is known as the Berlin Aircraft.

Geneva Accords

April 26th 1954 - July 21st 1954

Set of documents ended the French war with the Vietminh. This divided Vietnam into North and South states. The North Vietnam leader was Ho Chi Minh while the US friendly south was led by Ngo Dinh Diem.

Hungarian Revolution

October 23rd 1956 - November 10th 1956

Began as a Hungarian protest against Communist rule in Budapest. On October 24th, Soviet tanks entered Budapest and didn't leave until the 28th. A new government was formed which quickly moved to introduce democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. Soviet tanks returned on the 4th of November encircling Budapest. Prime Minister Imre Nagy made a world broadcast that Hungary was under attack from the Soviet Union.

Suez Crisis

October 29th 1956 - November 7th 1956

Following military bombardment by Israeli forces, British and French forces invaded Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal which had been nationalized by the Egyptian leader Nasser. Seeing as Russia had offered to support Egypt, the attack was criticized by world leaders, especially by America. The British and French were forced to withdraw and peace keeping force was sent to establish order.

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14th 1962 - October 28th 1962

A US spy plane reported seeing a construction of a Soviet nuclear missile base in Cuba. President Kennedy set up a naval blockade and demanded the removal of the missiles. Russians agreed on October 28th to remove the weapons, and the United States agreed not to invade Cuba.

JFK Assassination

November 22nd 1963

JF Kennedy was assassinated while on a visit to Dallas. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder. There has always been speculation that he was not a lone killer and that there may have been communist or CIA complicity.

Cambodia Killing Fields

Approx. April 17th 1975

The Khmer Rouge attacked and took control of Cambodia. Any supporters of the former regime, anyone with links or supposed links to foreign governments were executed in a genocide. Not only this but many intellectuals and professionals were also executed and this genocide became known as the 'killing fields'.

Olympic Boycott by USA

July 1980

Many countries including the USA boycotted the summer Olympics. The summer Olympics would've been held in Moscow in protest at the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Great Britain along with other countries participated under the Olympic flag instead of their national flag.

Glasnost and Perestroika

June 1987

Mikhail Gorbachev advocated free elections and ended the arms race. He announced his intention to follow a policy of glasnost, freedom of speech and perestroika. Glasnost means openness and perestroika is to restructure the government and economy.

Malta Summit

December 2nd 1989 - December 3rd 1989

This was a meeting to reserve provisions of the Yalta Conference. The meeting involved Mikhail Gorbachov and George H W Bush. It is seen as some as the beginning of the Cold War.