Mass Incarceration

Events

Johnson creates Office of Law Enforcement Assistance,

1965

provides funding and programs to expand and improve state and local
criminal justice systems

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

1970

The law criminalizes a wide range of drugs, including cocaine, heroine and marijuana, and broadens Federal enforcement powers.

general increase of incarceration for lower-level felonies

1970 - 1988

Nixon declares War on Drugs

1971

Drug Enforcement Agency created

1973

New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller enacts toughest drug laws in the nation

1973

punishing possession of even
small amounts of drugs with 15 years to life.

Nancy Reagan's "Just Say No"

1982

What to do if someone asks you if you want drugs

Reagan Administration on War on Drugs

1982

D.A.R.E

1983

Drug Abuse Resistance Education

Private Prisons were created

1984

Reagan administration hires staff to publicize the emergence of crack cocaine.

1985

Anti-Drug Abuse Act

1986

100:1 disparity a minimum sentence of 5 years without parole for possessing
5 grams of crack cocaine (mostly used by blacks), and the
same punishment for 500 grams of powder cocaine

Mandatory minimum drug sentences

1986

Office of National Drug Control Policy created

1988

it was the incarcerations of the drug was that lead to the government establishing this in the media.

Office of National Drug Control Policy

1989

Drugs courts emerge

1989

diverting drugs users to rehabilitative treatment instead of incarceration

LA Riots- Rodney King

1992

it brought attention to the inequalities of the implementation of the law among U.S. citizens.-- Racial profiling

Planned Parenthood v. Casey

1992

The court case Planned Parenthood v. Casey legalized abortion. This relates to the mass incarceration of non violent criminals because the amount of women incarcerated decreased by a lot with the passing of the case.

The Office of National Drug Control gained cabinet level status

1993

due to the increase of so many drug incarcerations the government sought to discontinue the drug abuse in later generations.

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994

1994

it is the largest crime bill in the history of the United States and consisted of 356 pages that provided for 100,000 new police officers, $9.7 billion in funding for prisons and $6.1 billion in funding for prevention programs, which were designed with significant input from experienced police officers

California passes 3 strikes law

1994

The three-strikes law significantly increases the prison sentences of persons convicted of a felony who have been previously convicted of two or more violent crimes or serious felonies, and limits the ability of these offenders to receive a punishment other than a life sentence.

Conditional Sentencing

1996

is an imprisonment (jail) sentence, except that the offender serves the sentence outside of jail, under strict, jail-like conditions. Conditional sentences are sometimes called “house arrest ,” because they often require an offender to spend all or part of the sentence in their house.

Clinton signs welfare reform

1996

Clinton signs welfare reform, increasing obstacles for
people convicted of drug felonies to access the social safety net,
and immigration reform, which increases deportation for noncitizens

War on Terror

2001

9/11 attacks prompt War on Terror, which increasingly
is used as just cation for intrusive policing in the name of
homeland security and counter-terrorism.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement

2002

2002 US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) formed.

U.S. vs. Booker

2005

In United States v. Booker, the U.S. Supreme
Court ruled that when imposing a sentence,
federal judges must only consider the facts

Targeting of racial students and Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006

2006

Jena High School in Louisiana makes
major headlines over a prosecutor allegedly
targeting students on racial grounds.

Second Chance Act

2007

Second Chance Act of 2007, which increases the programs that people
have access to in prison and reforms the re-entry
process to give those released a second chance

Fair Sentencing Act of 2010

2010

Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 was passed to reduce
the 100 to 1 disparity between crack and powder
cocaine possessions laws to 18 to 1. Mandatory

Trayvon Martin shooting

2012

The fatal shooting of teenager Trayvon Martin by
a local vigilante sparked a national outcry against
potentially racist motivations in the way the case

Proposition 47 and Reverse Policy on Asylum

2014

Obama administration reverses its policy on asylum
seekers, deciding that ICE will detain all arriving Central
American families, even those judged to be "fleeing a “credible
threat” who will likely be granted asylum.
California voters pass Proposition 47, which reclasses
many non-serious, non-violent property and drug crimes as
misdemeanors.