Electrical activity within the heart was first detected
Paul Zoll & Earl Brakken, innovators, pioneered smaller pacemakers, which were worn like necklaces.
Implanting electronic devices into the body presented problems. Electronic components were too bulky until the development of silicone transistors.
The first pacemaker to be implanted was given to Arne Larsson in Sweden. The device failed after 3 hours. The second device lasted 2 days
The modern techniques of implanting a pacemaker was developed by Seymour Furman. Instead of cutting open the chest cavity, he used a method of inserting the leads into a vein and threading them up into the ventricles. With the leads inside the heart, lower voltages were needed to regulate the heartbeat. This increased the lifespan of the pacemaker. By the late 1960’s most cardiac specialists were using this method.
Both public and private research sectors were experimenting with creating batteries using lithium.
Early pacemaker batteries had short, unreliable lifetimes until Wilson Greatbatch pioneered long-life lithium batteries.
The first pacemaker using a lithium battery was introduced and implanted within a patient
Researchers sought to improve the lithium battery by increasing its rate capability from microamps to milliamps. They were successful, nut the new battery was considerably more expensive.