Anticommunism

Events

Roosevelt

March 4, 1933 - April 12, 1945

world war 2

1939 - 1945

GI Bill

June 22, 1944

priority for govt jobs low interest mortgage, covering tuition and living expenses for veterans attending college

Moscow Conference

1944-10-09 - 1944-10-19

Stalin met Churchill to shape to outline postwar spheres of ingluence in the Balkans

Demobilization

1945 - 1947

12M soldiers in1945, 1.5 in 1947

Cold War

1945 - Approx. 1975

Yalta Conference

February 1945

planning the division of Germany into 4 occupation zones (F, UK, US, USSR)

Truman

12 April 1945 - January 20, 1953

UN Charter

April 25 1945

signed in San Francisco

potsdam conference

july 17, 1945 - august 2, 1945

confirmed the disarment and division of Germany, new border of Poland

Churchill voted out of office

27 July 1945

Hiroshima Bombing

August 6, 1945

mid-term elections in the US

1946-11-01

Republican majority in the congress

Marshall Plan

05 June 1947

§ 13 Billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951

Taft-Hartley Act

6/23/1947

Obligation to declare any CP member in Labor Union
Regulation of the right to strike
No strike for govt employees

Kominform

2 July 1947

Soviet answer to Marshall Plan

National Security Act of 1947

July 26, 1947

Creation o the Department of Defense, the Central Inteligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Council (NSC)

Recession

1948 - 1949

Unemployment rate : 7.6%

1948 Election

1948

Voted a Democratic majority into congress

Communist Coup in Prague

25 February 1948

Brussels Pact

March 17, 1948

Mutual assistance between France, UK & Benelux

Soviet-Yugoslav Break

June 1948

Tito was the first Communist leader who broke up with Stalin

Berlin Blockade

June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949

Airlift initiated, one plane landed in Berlin every minute during 321 day

NATO

April 4, 1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Federal German Republic founded

23 may 1949

Nuclear weapon in USSR

14 JUly 1949

End of US Nuclear monopoly

Atlantic Pact

24 August 1949

People's Republic of China

1 October 1949

Founded by Mao Tse-Tung after 20 years of civil war

NSC-68

April 14, 1950

secret report who called for the buildup of the US' and Allies' military forcesand tax increases to finance the military effort

European Coal and Steel Community

June 1950

France, Italy, West Germany and Benelux

Invasion of South Korea

25 June 1950

Kim Il Sung convinced Stalin that a Communist invasion of South Korea wouldbe profitable

Korean War

25 June 1950 - 27 July 1953

US Navy & Air Force support South Korea

27 June 1950

Ordered by Truman

South Korean Troops crossed the 38th parallel with US support

30 September 1950

Truman dismissed MacArthur

11 April 1951

MacArthur wished to drop nuclear bombs on China

Eisenhower

January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1961

Middle Class Hero, supreme commander of allied Forces in Europe during WWII
Main campaign promise was to end Korean War and "bring our boys home"
Vice President: Richard Nixon

Death of Stalin

March 5, 1953

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare created

April 11, 1953

Panmunjom / End of Korean War

27 July 1953

Armistice between China+Korea and UN

Public Works

1953-09-01

To end the recession
Saint Lawrence seaway
65,000 km of hyway network

brown vs. board of education

may 17 1954

End of segregation at school

Geneva Accords

20 JULY 1954

Confirmed the division of Vietnam between pro-Communist North-Vietnam and Pro-Western South Vietnam
The US refused to sign it, because they did not wanted to reckon Ho-Chi-Min as an official leader

Western European Union

23 october 1954

ECSC members + UK

Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

Military alliance, Communist counterpart and response to NATO

Increase of the minimum wage from $0.75 to $1

1956

20th Soviet Communist Party Conference

February 1956

De-Stalinization of USSR

Dissolution of Kominform

17 April 1956

Nationalization of the Suez Canal

26 July 1956

By Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser

Sèvres Meeting

22 October 1956

France, UK and Israel representatives met without the knowledge of the US, to plan an intervention

Hungarian Revolution

October 23, 1956 - November 10, 1956

After the election of Wladyslaw Gomulka as First Secretary of the CP in Poland, Ernö Gerö called for a Soviet military intervention

Israel attack Egypt

29 October 1956

Israel, France and UK land at Port-Said

6 november 1956

USSR threaten Israel, F & UK of attomic reprisals

6 november 1956

Eisenhower Doctrine

5 January 1957

Eisenhower asked Congress for authorization to extend economic and military cooperation and to employ American military forces in the Middle East

First Sputnik rocket launched by the USSR

October 1957

many Americans started believingthat the USSR had overtaken the USA

The Hunt for Spies and Subversives

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)

1938

special commitee to investigate Nazi and Soviet infiltration

Smith Act

June 1940

unlawul to advocate the forceful overthrow of the American government

Collapse of the CP

1945 - 1958

70,000 members in 1945
20,000 members in 1956
5,000 members in1958

William Z Foster at the head of the CP

1945 - 1957

Name changed to "Communist Party, USA"

July 1945

the name was American Communist Political Association during wartime

Gouzenko affair

September 1945

Igor Gouzenko, a young cipher clerk revealed that a huge Soviet spy ring had been at work in North America for years, including elements whick led to Alger Hiss and Rosenbergs

Communist Infiltration in the United States

October 1945

pamphlet published by the US Chamber of Commerce, which denounced the Communist infiltration of the Democratic administration. (200,000-copy printrun)

2,700 federal employees were dismissed as security risks

1947 - 1965

Executive Order 9835

22 March 1947

Truman's program to investigate the "loyalty" of federal employees

First Amendment's voiding

october 1947

"Hollywood Ten"' could not took the 1st Amendment to justify their refusal to answer the HUAC questions

The Hollywood Ten

October 1947

Hearings with several anti-communists witnesses who testified to Communist wartime activity in Hollywood. Then came the hearings of ten "unfriendly witnesses", allpast or present CP members

HUAC Goes to Hollywood

October 1947

HUAC managed to gain national attention.

Attorney General's List

November 1947

Attorney General Tom Clar updated version of the list of subversive organization first drafted in 1942. It included 93 names. The lineup had swollen to 197, although 130 of these had ceased to exist.

Waldorf Statement

25 November 1947

no Communist would knowingly be employed in Hollywood. It is the origin of the Blacklisting practices.

Hollywood Ten Trial

1948

Prosecution of American Communists

1949 - 1957

145 Communists were indicated under the Smith Act

Denis Trial

January 1949 - October 1949

CP's general secretary Eugene Dennis and 11 National Committee members were arrested for conspiring to teach and advocate the violent overthrow of the US govrnment. They set out to base their line of defense upon the Marxist doctrine. The judge himself, Harold Medina was a reactionary paranoiac. A guilty verdict was handed down, with 5years jail terms

Alger Hiss affair

may 1949 - June 1949

Alger Hiss, former State Dept. official, participated in the Yalta Conference and upervised the San Francisco Conference (UN). But he was named by ElizabethBentley and Whittaker Chambers. Chambers' alegations were often contradictory, but the trial ended in a guilty verdict and a jail time sentence. Hiss was defeated by HUAC member Richard Nixon

Truman announced the USSR first nuclear detonation

September 1949

he said that Soviets had achieved this result through espionage.

Confirmation of the validity of the Hollywood Ten's trial

1950

Wheeling speech

9 February 1950

Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy told the WOmen's Republican Club of Wheeling that he held in his hands a list of 205 Communist agents employed by the State Dept.. When it was printed, the number was scaled down to 57.

Joseph McCarthy's accusation against Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR)

March 1950 - June 1950

Red Channels: the Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television

June 1950

215-pages booklet whichlisted 151 "tainted" directors, actor and performers as well as tgheur alleged subversives. Each of them were blacklisted.

Internal Security Act of 1950

August 23, 1950

Based on a measure first suggested by HUAC members R. Nixon and Karl Mundt in 1948. Truman vetoed the bill but it was overriden. It was the most significant piece of legislation in the war against Communiost infiltration, most efficient than the dated Smith Act. However, it was never implemented in practice.

Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS)

December 1950

Senate response to the HUAC

Court confirms the constitutionality of Smith Act

1951

Rosenberg Case

6 march 1951 - June 19, 1953

Julius Rosenberg and his wie had left the CP in 1943. They were arrested in the summer of 1950. Their trial began on March 6, 1951 on grounds of conspiracy to spy for a foreign nation. The Rosenbergs remained stubbornly silent, and they were scentenced to death penalty. Recently elected President Eisenhower refused to commute their sentence, considering that giving the A-Bomb to the soviets was a "crime worse than murder"

Executive Order 10241

28 April 1951

Truman changed criteria for dismeal from "reasonable grounds" for believing in someone's disloyalty to "reasonable doubt as to loyalty".
Almost impossible for suspects to prove their innocence

SISS investigation on IPR

July 1951 - June 1952

the most important investigation of the period, with a view to demonstrating that Communist had subverted US foreign policy in China and indirectly caused the Korean War

Relection of McCarthy

November 1952

GOC

November 1952

Permanent Investigation Subcommittee ofthe Government Operations Committee
Joe McCarthy was denied chairmanship of SISS and given insterad a second-rate committee: the GOC. But he used it to create a subcommittee which gave him powers equivalent to SISS

McCarthyism started losing momentum

1953 - 1954

Executive Order 10450

27 April 1953

no known past or present alcoholics, drug addicts, or sexual deviants would be allowed into the federal administration

McCarthy's onslaught against the Army

July 1953

Came from the Army's reluctance to regard David Schine as an exceptional soldier.

McCarthy set his sight on the Army Signal Corps lab of Fort Monmouth

October 1953

It was an alleged Soviet spy ring (Rosenberg was a member of the Corps). Suspension of 42 employees.

Irving Peress case

December 1953

a left wing dentist. McCarthy lashed out at his superior, General Ralph Zwicker. Drafting of a list of McCarthy's pressures ans threats. The list reached the press in March 1954 and brought the senator to accept hearings to sort out the two sides' recriminations

Army-McCarthy Hearings

April 1954 - June 1954

shed light on Wisconsin senator's obnoxious tactics. Covered by ABX cameras

McCarthy's disgrace

2 December 1954

Censured by the Senate for disruptive behavior and violation of decorum

Whole legislative infrastructure of the which hunt was graduately...

1955 - 1957

...undermined by the Supreme court

COINTELPRO

August 1956

after the Supreme Court started undermining redbaiting's legal appartus, the FIB embarked on Cointelpro (Counter-Intelligence Program), a prograp designed to cripple radical and subversive groups. COINTERPRO's activity mostly targetted the 60s and 70s New Left radicals as well as the Black Power and Ku Klux Klan

ap

22 septembre 2014 - 18 juillet 2016