priority for govt jobs low interest mortgage, covering tuition and living expenses for veterans attending college
Stalin met Churchill to shape to outline postwar spheres of ingluence in the Balkans
12M soldiers in1945, 1.5 in 1947
planning the division of Germany into 4 occupation zones (F, UK, US, USSR)
signed in San Francisco
confirmed the disarment and division of Germany, new border of Poland
Republican majority in the congress
§ 13 Billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951
Obligation to declare any CP member in Labor Union
Regulation of the right to strike
No strike for govt employees
Soviet answer to Marshall Plan
Creation o the Department of Defense, the Central Inteligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Council (NSC)
Unemployment rate : 7.6%
Voted a Democratic majority into congress
Mutual assistance between France, UK & Benelux
Tito was the first Communist leader who broke up with Stalin
Airlift initiated, one plane landed in Berlin every minute during 321 day
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
End of US Nuclear monopoly
Founded by Mao Tse-Tung after 20 years of civil war
secret report who called for the buildup of the US' and Allies' military forcesand tax increases to finance the military effort
France, Italy, West Germany and Benelux
Kim Il Sung convinced Stalin that a Communist invasion of South Korea wouldbe profitable
Ordered by Truman
MacArthur wished to drop nuclear bombs on China
Middle Class Hero, supreme commander of allied Forces in Europe during WWII
Main campaign promise was to end Korean War and "bring our boys home"
Vice President: Richard Nixon
Armistice between China+Korea and UN
To end the recession
Saint Lawrence seaway
65,000 km of hyway network
End of segregation at school
Confirmed the division of Vietnam between pro-Communist North-Vietnam and Pro-Western South Vietnam
The US refused to sign it, because they did not wanted to reckon Ho-Chi-Min as an official leader
ECSC members + UK
Military alliance, Communist counterpart and response to NATO
De-Stalinization of USSR
By Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser
France, UK and Israel representatives met without the knowledge of the US, to plan an intervention
After the election of Wladyslaw Gomulka as First Secretary of the CP in Poland, Ernö Gerö called for a Soviet military intervention
Eisenhower asked Congress for authorization to extend economic and military cooperation and to employ American military forces in the Middle East
many Americans started believingthat the USSR had overtaken the USA
special commitee to investigate Nazi and Soviet infiltration
unlawul to advocate the forceful overthrow of the American government
70,000 members in 1945
20,000 members in 1956
5,000 members in1958
the name was American Communist Political Association during wartime
Igor Gouzenko, a young cipher clerk revealed that a huge Soviet spy ring had been at work in North America for years, including elements whick led to Alger Hiss and Rosenbergs
pamphlet published by the US Chamber of Commerce, which denounced the Communist infiltration of the Democratic administration. (200,000-copy printrun)
Truman's program to investigate the "loyalty" of federal employees
"Hollywood Ten"' could not took the 1st Amendment to justify their refusal to answer the HUAC questions
Hearings with several anti-communists witnesses who testified to Communist wartime activity in Hollywood. Then came the hearings of ten "unfriendly witnesses", allpast or present CP members
HUAC managed to gain national attention.
Attorney General Tom Clar updated version of the list of subversive organization first drafted in 1942. It included 93 names. The lineup had swollen to 197, although 130 of these had ceased to exist.
no Communist would knowingly be employed in Hollywood. It is the origin of the Blacklisting practices.
145 Communists were indicated under the Smith Act
CP's general secretary Eugene Dennis and 11 National Committee members were arrested for conspiring to teach and advocate the violent overthrow of the US govrnment. They set out to base their line of defense upon the Marxist doctrine. The judge himself, Harold Medina was a reactionary paranoiac. A guilty verdict was handed down, with 5years jail terms
Alger Hiss, former State Dept. official, participated in the Yalta Conference and upervised the San Francisco Conference (UN). But he was named by ElizabethBentley and Whittaker Chambers. Chambers' alegations were often contradictory, but the trial ended in a guilty verdict and a jail time sentence. Hiss was defeated by HUAC member Richard Nixon
he said that Soviets had achieved this result through espionage.
Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy told the WOmen's Republican Club of Wheeling that he held in his hands a list of 205 Communist agents employed by the State Dept.. When it was printed, the number was scaled down to 57.
215-pages booklet whichlisted 151 "tainted" directors, actor and performers as well as tgheur alleged subversives. Each of them were blacklisted.
Based on a measure first suggested by HUAC members R. Nixon and Karl Mundt in 1948. Truman vetoed the bill but it was overriden. It was the most significant piece of legislation in the war against Communiost infiltration, most efficient than the dated Smith Act. However, it was never implemented in practice.
Senate response to the HUAC
Julius Rosenberg and his wie had left the CP in 1943. They were arrested in the summer of 1950. Their trial began on March 6, 1951 on grounds of conspiracy to spy for a foreign nation. The Rosenbergs remained stubbornly silent, and they were scentenced to death penalty. Recently elected President Eisenhower refused to commute their sentence, considering that giving the A-Bomb to the soviets was a "crime worse than murder"
Truman changed criteria for dismeal from "reasonable grounds" for believing in someone's disloyalty to "reasonable doubt as to loyalty".
Almost impossible for suspects to prove their innocence
the most important investigation of the period, with a view to demonstrating that Communist had subverted US foreign policy in China and indirectly caused the Korean War
Permanent Investigation Subcommittee ofthe Government Operations Committee
Joe McCarthy was denied chairmanship of SISS and given insterad a second-rate committee: the GOC. But he used it to create a subcommittee which gave him powers equivalent to SISS
no known past or present alcoholics, drug addicts, or sexual deviants would be allowed into the federal administration
Came from the Army's reluctance to regard David Schine as an exceptional soldier.
It was an alleged Soviet spy ring (Rosenberg was a member of the Corps). Suspension of 42 employees.
a left wing dentist. McCarthy lashed out at his superior, General Ralph Zwicker. Drafting of a list of McCarthy's pressures ans threats. The list reached the press in March 1954 and brought the senator to accept hearings to sort out the two sides' recriminations
shed light on Wisconsin senator's obnoxious tactics. Covered by ABX cameras
Censured by the Senate for disruptive behavior and violation of decorum
...undermined by the Supreme court
after the Supreme Court started undermining redbaiting's legal appartus, the FIB embarked on Cointelpro (Counter-Intelligence Program), a prograp designed to cripple radical and subversive groups. COINTERPRO's activity mostly targetted the 60s and 70s New Left radicals as well as the Black Power and Ku Klux Klan