Events Leading to Civil War and to the End of the War


Westward Expansion


Went to "Oregon" for free land
Ministers, Middle Class, Farmers, Gold Seekers, Army, and Women
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman (focus on Cayuse)
Oregon Trail in 1843
1847 (Marcus and Narcissa are murdered)
Left for opportunity (independence), mission emphasis, and because of the Depression of 1837
Beliefs ("free in the West", violence was everywhere, everyone moved, everything changed in the west)
Women added value to the west (they made clothes, taught morals, took care of children, "Guardians of Moral Value")


March 6, 1836

Mexican army cut off all food supply from getting into forts
Santa Anna wanted to crush revolts
Led troops to Texas

Battle of San Jacinto

April 1, 1836

Texans dominates Mexicans
People trained like crazy

Manifest Destiny


J.L. Osullivan wrote a newspaper on why America should be coast to coast
During this time Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico

Sutter's Mill

January 1848

John Sutter builds fort and James Marshall builds mill and redirected river to power mill
Found gold in river and kept it a secret till December 1848/January 1849
President Polk announced the gold
300,000 people migrated to California in search of gold

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 2, 1848

Ends Mexican American War
Gives Americans bunch of land
Wilmot Proviso--proposed to prohibit slavery in areas taken from Mexico which was never passed

Compromise of 1850


Split bill into 5 different sections
1-Texas surrendered claim to New Mexico
2- California admitted as Free State
3-Popular Sovereignty for Utah and New Mexico territories
4-Fugitive Slave Act
5-Banned slave trade in the Washington D.C.
Popular Sovereignty--ability for a territory to be able to vote if they want slaves or not
Fugitive Slave Act--allowed for people to go capture all slaves and bring them back into the South

Presidential Election 1


Franklin Pierce (D) Winfield Scott (W)

Pierce wins
Northern Democrat increased sectional splits

Kansas Nebraska Act


Was organization of railroad from Illinois to California
Stephen A. Douglas
Repeal of Missouri Compromise
Divided territory in half

Missourians Act


Into 1856
Rigged Elections
Held another vote in a different town
Sack of Lawrence
burn some buildings, terrorized people
made news May 21, 1856

Pottawatomie Massacre


John Brown from Pennsylvania took sons out to Kansas
He pulled men out of their houses and murdered them in front of families
Escapes into Canada on May 24, 1856

Crime Against Kansas


Senator Charles Sumner calls out Andrew Butler
tells him he only wants slavery as a way for prostitution
Sumner is beaten by Andrew Butler's cousin Preston Brooks on Senate floor on May 22, 1856

Presidential Election 2


James Buchanan (D) John C. Fremont
Able to stay out of the slavery discussion

Dred Scott Case

March 6, 1857

1846 Scott sued for freedom
He was a slave for an army doctor
Case works all the way up to the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Roger Taney says African Americans were never citizens so they couldn't sue for their freedom (worst legal decision)

Lincoln Douglass Debate


Pushes national focus on slavery

Harper's Ferry

October 16, 1859

Hoped for slave uprising
Hayward Shap was the first free black man killed

Presidential Election 3


Lincoln vs. Douglass
Southern Democrats torn
Democrats split into 3 parties
Southern Democrats---pro slavery
Constitutional Union Party-
Lincoln (R) Douglas (D) Breckingridge (SD) Bell (CU)
Lincoln wins with 2/5 popular vote

Inauguration of Lincoln


Secession of South Carolina


During the time of President Buchanan and he didn't do anything about it
He declared it to be illegal
7 other states followed South Carolina
Lincoln retained federal property (armory, bank, post office, ect.)

Fort Sumter

April 12, 1861
  • Lincoln tries to send supplies to Fort Sumter
  • Confederates didn't let supplies in
  • Confederacy shoots first
  • Starts civil war

Battle of First Bull Run

July 21, 1861
  • Hundreds of families watch--they retreat through them
  • Both sides expected quick victory
  • Bloodiest battle yet
  • Reveals length of war

Milita Act


Allowed for Union drafts and for African Americans to work for army

CSA Drafts

April 1862

Able bodied men 18-35 years old
Have to fight for 3 years
Public Servant
Editor of Newspaper, Nurse, Railroad worker...
Owned 20+ slaves
Hire replacement


April 6, 1862
  • Largest and costliest battle
  • Grant's first major victory
  • Bloodies battle yet *Union success

Compesated Emancupation

April 16, 1862

Paying for slaves freedom by the government
Went into effect January 1,k 1863

Antietam Creek

September 17, 1862
  • Bloodiest single battle yet
  • Northern victory technically
  • Allows for Lincoln to announce Emancipation Proclamation


December 1862
  • Lowest point of the Union
  • Full frontal attack on Union


December 11, 1862 - December 15, 1862

Low point for the Union
Union had twice the causalities

Enrollment Act

March 1863

Males between 20 and 45 including aliens who were planning on becoming citizens or could pay your way out


May 1863 - July 1863

Union gains access to Mississippi River
Grant's lead
Anaconda Plan or Total War
Surrounds Vicksburg and cuts off supplies
Cut Confederacy in half


July 1, 1863 - July 2, 1863
  • Turning point----things start to go the Union's way Union doesn't pursue Confederates Confederate had to go North to get shoes

Draft Riots

July 1863

In New York
Turned into Anti-Black
Blacks had abandoned Manhattan and moved to Brooklyn

Grant becomes commander


Total War
Confederacy needed to feel pain


April 9, 1864

Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House
Confiscate heavy artillery
Lee doesn't get punished

Sherman's March to the Sea

May 1864

Total War
Total destruction (bridges, farms, houses)
Atlanta falls Sept. 1864
March to the Sea November 1864
they destroyed the South

13th Amendment


Overrides Emancipation Proclamation
Abolishes slavery

Andrew Johnson becomes president


Pardons everyone
Subvert Lincoln's Intentions

Lincoln's Assassination

April 14, 1865

Last Surrender

June 23, 1865

Stand Watie-Cherokee
Industry and infrastructure of South destroyed
Secession was defeated
Union is preserved

Civil RIghts Act of 1866


Gives civil liberties to former slaves
Vetoed by Johnson

Tenure of Office Act


Aimed at Johnson
Prevented removal of cabinet without senate approval

Radical Reconstruction

1867 - 1876

New state government
14th amendment had to be ratified

14th Amendment


Guaranteed civil rights

Election 4


Andrew Johnson
About to be impeached in spring of 1867
Ulysses S. Grant (R) v Horatio Seymour (D)

15th Amendment



Panic of 1873


Caused by one company
Brought on by industrial capitalism

Election 5


Samuel TIden (D) v Rutherford B. Hayes (R)
Democrats showed well
Extremely close election
Hayes wins

Compromise of 1877


Withdrawal of federal forces
Industrialization for the South
Democrats to Southern Patronage positions
Democrat in President's cabinet