Russia

Leader

Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Alexander III

1881 - 1894

Nicholas II

1894 - March 1917

Provisional Government

March 1917 - October 1917

Made up of fourth duma

Lenin

October 1917 - 1924

Stalin

1924 - 1953

Khrushchev

1953 - 1964

Economic

Creation State bank

1860

Reform of tax collection

1860

Von Reuton

1862 - 1878

Finance

Peasent land bank

1883

abolition of poll tax

1885

Noble lank bank

1885

Vyshnegradsky

1887 - 1892

Finance minister

Widespread famine

1891 - 1892

Witte

1892 - 1903

Finance minister

Economic slump

1901 - 1905

Wide depression
Failed harvest

Main section railway finished

1903

Trans-Siberian

Stolypin

1906 - November 1911

Agriculture
Neck ties

Industiral unrest

1912

Socialalisation of land

February 1917

State capitalism

October 1917 - 1918

Lenin fear of peasent and worker-workers failed organise and output went down (unsuitable pay rises, Stole stock and equipment)
High inflation
Rationing occurred-Petrograd 50g bread a day
Land decree
Workers decree

Veshenka

December 1917

Council national economy
Control and supervise dev

Banks nationalised

December 1917

War Communism

1918 - 1920

Requisitioning grain to feed army
Kulaks hated further famine
Bartering goods

nationalisation of industry

January 1918

New Economic policy

1921

Great Famine

1921 - 1922

Kronstadt rev

1921

Used to be strong Bolshevik support

New Economic policy

1921 - 1928

Sell surplus
tax intro
Rationing ended
Pay wages from profit
Capitalism- private ownership

Scissor Crisis

1923

Trotsky
huge increase grain supply and food prices went down
Held back supplies
gov capped industry and replaced peasant quotes with money tax

Not enough grain

1927

First five year plan

1928 - 1933

Focus hard industry

Collectivsation Stage 1

1929 - 1930

Collectivisation stage 2

1930 - 1941

25% grain farming collectivised

January 1930

58% peasant household collectivised

March 1930

Mixture force and propaganda

Worst famine

1932 - 1933

Moscow-Volfa canal completed

1932 - 1937

Second five year plan

1933 - 1938

Focus on soft industry

Three good years

1934 - 1936

Pressure was not intense and food rationing ended

Moscow metro opened

1935

Grain and livestock didn't exceed pre-collectiviation

1935

GDP 17%

1937

Coal doubled

1937

Steel trebled

1937

Third five year plan

1938 - 1941

Focus heavy industry and rearming country

Worst drought

1946

Fourth five year plan

1946 - 1950

Famine in Ukraine

1947

Devaulation of rouble 90%

1947

Fifth five year plan

1951 - 1955

Virgin land scheme

1953 - 1961

local central comittee

1953

Sixth 5yr plan

1956

decentralisation

1957

60 Moscow ministers abolsihed

1957

Soviet industry slowed down

1958

fell to 7.5% in 1964
Consumer only grew 2% 1964

Launch Maize campaign

1959

Seven year plan

1959

Shift to modern industries

Poor harvest

1963

Bad harvest had to import grain

1963

Social

Emancipation of the serf

1861

University Statute

1863

Zemstva established

1864

Judiciary reform

1864

Censorship refom

1865

Church reform

1867 - 1869

Military reform

1874 - 1875

Counter- reform on censorship

1881 - 1882

Counter reform education and church

1884

Russification

1885 - 1900

Peasent disorder

1901

Labour strikes

1903

Anti-semantic progroms

1903

Bloody Sunday

Jan 1905

1905 rev

1905

Causes-Russo Japanese war, Social and economic issues, political reform, Bloody sunday
Reason Failure-Army loyal to tsar, lack unity rev groups, October manifesto given, Duma, Black Hundred

February Revolution

February 1905

Prov gov took over

Lena goldfield massacre

1912

strikes and civil unrest

January 1917

Petrograd

International women day march

23 February 1917

Petrograd
Turned into a worker's demonstration

Max 8hr day

October 1917

Social insurance

October 1917

Abolition titles and class

November 1917

Workers control factories

November 1917

Women and men given equality of property

November 1917

Marriage and divorce taken out church

December 1917

Workers control over railway

January 1918

Stalin 50th birthday

1929

Mass collectivisation and liquidation Kulaks

1929

Annihilate the kulaks as a class

December 1929

Red army and cheka identified, executed or deport
Rep 4% population
15% peasant household destroyed and 150,000 richer peasant migrate north or east
not labelled Kulaks killed livestock and destroy crops

Women pay fell

1930 - 1945

Stole from collective jail 10yrs

August 1932

Drought hit agriculture

October 1932

Stakhanovite Movement

1935 - 1953

Restriction divorce and abortion

1936

Mobilised all undrafted worker

1941

All men 16-55yrs
All women 16-45yrs
White collar to munition factories
pensioner back to work
Students part time work

new measure combat falling birth rates

July 1944

tax those fewer 2 children, restrictions on divorce, abortion forbidden, right to inherit family property re established and mother of 2 children 'heroine of the soviet union'

High Stalinism

1945 - 1953

Begin Zhdanovshchina

1946

Zhdanovshchina

1946

Working hrs reduced

1953

Bachelor and childless coup tax removed

1958

Cars becoming common

1960

Education reform

1963 - 1964

Political

Local gov reform

1862 - 1870

Assassination attempt of Alexander II

1866 - 1881

Loris-Melikov

1881

May Laws

1882

Discrimination against the Jews
Condemned Jew live in Ghettos
Meant to be temp

No jews elected Orphan asylum

1886

Jews only alcohol on personal property

1886

Jews graduted uni had to stay inside pale

1887

Quota Jews allowed in education, prohibited settle Finland

1887

10% in pale
5% outside the pale
3% capitals

Land captain established

1889

Jews special permit join legal

1889

Permission from Minister of Justice

Zemstvo counter-reforms

1890

restricting franchise

Town/city gov counter-reform

1892

Restricting franchise

Jews banned participation local election

1892

couldn't stand either

Illegal Jews adopt Christian names

1893

Jews cannot sell alcohol

1894

October manifesto

1905

First Duma

1906

May-July
Duma of national Hope

Fundamental law

1906

Article 4 still gave all the power to the tsar

Second Duma

1907

Feb-June
Duma of national Anger

Third Duma

November 1907 - June 1912

Duma of Lords and Lackeys

Fourth duma

1912 - 1914

Suspended cause ww1

Tsar assumes control army

1915

Troops joined demonstration

27 February 1917

Refused to fire and turned against the tsar

April Thesis

3 April 1917

All power to the soviet
Peace, bread and land

July Days

3 July 1917

Anti-gov demonstration in Petrograd

Kornilov affair

27 July 1917

All red army armed and realised
Made them look good and gov look weak

Ban opposition

October 1917

Decree on Peace

October 1917

Rights to the minorities

november 1917

Abolition old legal system

November 1917

Church land nationalised

December 1917

Constitutional assembly forcibly dissolved

January 1918

Church andd state separation

January 1918

Creation red army

january 1918

Communist party formed

March 1918

Tsar family shot

17th July 1918

Attempt Lenin life

August 1918

Politburo

1919

Sovnarkom met less

1920 - 1929

Ban on factions

1921

Lenin dictates testament

1922

Constitutional change

1922

Stalin elected General Secretary

1922

General secretary open to party member

1922

Nomenklatura system added party domination

1923

Stalin wife committed suicide

November 1932

Left a note criticising Stalin policies and showing sympathy Stalin’s political enemies
Suicide reported to public as death from appendicitis end to a bad year

Stalin Cult

1933 - 1939

Assassination of Kirov

1934

Could have taken over from Kirov
Had more votes to take the power then Stalin did

Kirov affair

1934

Constitution

1936

Supreme soviet met twice a year
Elections left

'All union Communist party'

1938

Only Russia historical bok

No party congress held

1939 - 1952

Leningrad Affair

1949

Doctors plot

1952

Malenkov become head of state

1953

Malenkov replaced by Bulganin- Head of state

1955

20th party conference

1956

Secret speech
Beginning de-Stalinisation

Secret speech

1956

Start De Stalinisation
Made Stalin responsible for all the negative eg purges, terror

First party congress after Stalin (20th congress)

26th February 1956

Foreign

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Polish revolt

1863

Russo-Turkish war

1877 - 1878

Russo-Japanese war

1904 - 1905

Russia defeated Battle of Tanneberg

1914

Germany declare war on Russia

August 1, 1914

Famine

1932 - 1933

Across national minority states
Eg Ukraine

Nazi-Soviet pact

1939

Nazi invade USSR

1941

Siege of Leningrad

1941 - 1944

Battle of Moscow

1941

Soviet counter offence

1941

WW2

1941 - 1945

Battle Stalingrad

1942

Nazi driven back from Stalingrad

1943

Soviet armies advance Eastern europe

1944

Soviet invasion Germany

1945

Berlin Blockade

1948

Sputnik launched

1957

First manned space flight

1961

Cuban missile crisis

1962

Opposition

Young Russia

1862

Student organisation
Anti-Tsar and anti-church
Violenance
Education caused

Chernyshevsky publishes 'What is to be Done?'

1863

critical tsar and wanted peasant move forward

The Organisation

1863

Student lead- university
Education cause

St Peterburg Zemstova

1864

political reform
didn't demonstrate

Populism

1869 - 1872

Go to the people
Nechaev and Bakunin-set up
Lavrov-led

Tchaikasky circle

1869 - 1872

Smuggle books in
Socialism
Fairer tax

Publication Das Kapital

1872

Marx work and methods
Based on Germany

Narodnik-populaist movement

1874

ladrov-leader
go to the people
Believed to be gov spies

Narodnik second movement

1876

Land and Liberty

1877

split in two
Black Partition-peaceful,equality, spread radical literature, finished 1881
Peoples Will-Violence, bigger group

People will set up

1879

Terrorist organisation

Social Democratic Workers Party set up

1898

SD

Social Revolutionary Party set up

1899

SR

SD split

1903

Bolsheviks
Mensheviks

two opposition group emerged

1932

Informal group of ‘old Bolsheviks’ included Leonid Smirnov discovered debate to have Stalin removal
Second group led by Martemyan Ryutin (former Moscow Secretary and ‘rightist’
Criticism known ‘Ryutin Platform’ disapproved Stalinist political direction and personality-some papers found Nadezhda room

Terror

Trial of 50

1877

Cheka established

December 1917

Cheka established

December 1917

800,00 to million killed

1918 - 1921

Red terror

1918 - 1921

Cheka find, question, arrest and destroy family traitors

September 1918

Sovnarkom gave permission

Georgia independence crushed

1922

Shakhty Trial

1928

Industrial party show trial

1930

Accusation of sabotage

General purge of party

April 1933

Yezhov appointed head NKVD

1936

Show trial of 16

1936

Including Zinoviev, Kamenev
All 16 found guilty involvement Trotsky inspired plot murder Stalin and other Politburo members
All executed together with 160 accomplices

Great Purges

1937 - 1938

Show trial of 17

1937

Includes Radek
accused plotting exiled Trotsky sabotage industry and spy

Yezhovshchina

1937 - 1938

Purge ordinary citizens
Surveillance everywhere

Show trial of 18

1938

Includes Bukharin, Rykov

Beria executed

1953