World War II

Events

Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

January 30, 1933

The German Reichstag burns

February 27, 1933

First concentration camp opened at Oranienburg outside Berlin

March 12, 1933

Enabling Act gives Hitler dictatorial power

March 23, 1933

Nazi boycott of Jewish owned shops

April 1, 1933

Nazis burn books in Germany

May 10, 1933

Nazis open Dachau concentration camp

June 1, 1933 - June 30, 1933

Nazi Party declared Germany's only political party

July 14, 1933

Germany quits the League of Nations

OCtober 14, 1933

The Nazi "Night of the Long Knives"

June 30, 1934

Nazis murder Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss

July 25, 1934

German President Hindenburg dies

August 2, 1934

Adolf Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany

August 19, 1934

Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription

March 16, 1935

German Jews stripped of rights by Nuremberg Race Laws

September 15, 1935

The German Gestapo is places above the law

February 10, 1936

German troops occupy the Rhineland

March 7, 1936

Mussolini's Italian forces take Ethiopia

May 9, 1936

Civil war erupts in Spain

July 18, 1936

Olympic games begin in Berlin

August 1, 1936

Franco declared head of Spanish State

October 1, 1936

Soviet leader Josef Stalin begins a purge of Red Army generals

June 11, 1937

Hitler reveals war plans during Hossbach Conference

November 5, 1937

Germany announces 'Anschluss' (union) with Austria

March 12, 1938 - March 13, 1938

Germany military mobilizes

August 12, 1938

British Prime Minister Chamberlain appeases Hitler at Munich

September 30, 1938

Czech government resigns

October 15, 1938

German troops occupy the Sudetenland

October 15, 1938

Kristallnacht-The Night of Broken Glass

November 9, 1938 - November 10, 1938

Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech

January 30, 1939

Nazis take Czechoslovakia

March 15, 1939 - March 16, 1939

Spanish Civil war ends

March 28, 1939

Nazis sign 'Pact of Steel' with Italy

May 22, 1939

Nazis and Soviets sign Pact

August 23, 1939

Britain and Poland sign a Mutual Assistance Treaty

August 25, 1939

British fleet mobilizes

August 31, 1939

Civilian evacuations begin from London

August 31, 1939

Nazis invade Poland

September 1, 1939

Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany

September 3, 1939

British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy

September 4, 1939

United States proclaims its neutrality

September 5, 1939

German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland

September 5, 1939

Canada declares war on Germany

September 10, 1939

Battle of the Atlantic begins

September 10, 1939

Soviets invade Poland

September 17, 1939

Reinhard Heydrich becomes the leader of new Reich Main Security Office (RSHA)

September 27, 1939

Warsaw surrenders to Nazis

September 27, 1939

Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany

October 1, 1939 - October 31, 1939

Assassination attempt on Hitler fails

November 8, 1939

Soviets attack Finland

November 30, 1939

Soviet Union expelled from the League of Nations

December 14, 1939

Rationing begins in Britain

January 8, 1940

Finland signs a peace treaty with Soviets

March 12, 1940

Germans bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland

March 16, 1940

Nazis invade Denmark and Norway

April 9, 1940

Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands

May 10, 1940

Winstin Churchill becomes British Prime Minister

May 10, 1940

Holland surrenders to the Nazis

May 15, 1940

Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins

May 26, 1940

Belgium surrenders to the Nazis

May 28, 1940

Dunkirk evacuation ends

June 3, 1940

Germans bomb Paris

June 3, 1940

Italy declares war on Britain and France

June 10, 1940

Norway surrenders to the Nazis

June 10, 1940

Germans enter Paris

June 14, 1940

Marshal Petain becomes French Prime Minister

June 16, 1940

Soviets begin occupation of the Baltic States

June 18, 1940

Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich

June 18, 1940

France signs an armistice with Nazi Germany

June 22, 1940

Hitler tours Paris

June 23, 1940

Britain recognizes General Charles de Gaulle as the Free French leader

June 28, 1940

German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic

July 1, 1940

French Vichy government breaks off relations with Britain

July 5, 1940

Battle of Britain begins

July 10, 1940

Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia

July 23, 1940

Italians occupy British Somaliland in East Africa

August 3, 1940 - August 19, 1940

German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England

August 13, 1940

Air battles and daylight raids over Britain

August 15, 1940

Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles

August 17, 1940

First German air raid on Central London

August 23, 1940 - August 24, 1940

First British air raid on Berlin

August 25, 1940 - August 26, 1940

Hitler plans Operation Sea Lion (the invasion of Britain)

September 3, 1940

German Blitz against Britain begins

September 7, 1940

Italians invade Egypt

September 13, 1940

Massive German air raids on London, Southhampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool, and Manchester

September 15, 1940

United States military conscription bill passed

September 16, 1940

Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy, and Japan

September 27, 1940

German troops enter Romania

October 7, 1940

Germans postpone Operation Sea Lion until Spring of 1941

October 12, 1940

Italy invades Greece

October 28, 1940

Roosevelt re-elected as U.S. President

November 5, 1940

Torpedo bomber raid cripples the Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy

November 10, 1940 - November 11, 1940

Germans bomb Coventry, England

November 14, 1940 - November 15, 1940

Hungary joins the Axis Powers

November 20, 1940

Greeks defeat the Italian 9th Army

November 22, 1940

Romania joins the Axis Powers

November 23, 1940

British begin a western desert offensive in North Afric against the Italians

December 9, 1940 - December 10, 1940

Massive German air raid on London

December 29, 1940 - December 30, 1940

Tobruk in North Africa falls to the British and Australians

January 22, 1941

British forces advance into Italian Somaliland in East Africa

February 11, 1941

German General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli, North Africa

February 12, 1941

First units of German 'Afrika Korps' arrive in North Africa

February 14, 1941

British forces arrive in Greece

March 7, 1941

President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act

March 11, 1941

A coup in Yugoslavia overthrows the pro-Axis government

March 27, 1941

Pro-Axis regime set up in Iraq

April 3, 1941

Nazis invade Greece and Yugoslavia

April 6, 1941

Rommel attacks Tobruk

April 14, 1941

Yugoslavia surrenders to the Nazis

April 17, 1941

Greece surrenders to the Nazis

April 27, 1941

German attack on Tobruk is repulsed

May 1, 1941

Deputy Fuhrer Rudolph Hess flies to Scotland

May 10, 1941

British bomb Hamburg

May 10, 1941 - May 11, 1941

Heavy German bombing of London

May 10, 1941 - May 11, 1941

Operation Brevity begins (the British counter-attack in Egypt)

May 15, 1941

Sinking of the British ship Hood by the Bismarck

May 24, 1941

Sinking of the Bismarck by the Bristish Navy

May 27, 1941

Nazis SS-Einsatzgruppen begin mass murder

June 1, 1941 - June 30, 1941

Pro-Allied government installed in Iraq

June 4, 1941

Allies invade Syria and Lebanon

June 8, 1941

United States freezes German and Italian assets in America

June 22, 1941

Germany attacks Soviet Union as Operation Barbarossa begins

June 22, 1941

German capture Minsk

June 28, 1941

Stalin calls for a scorched earth policy

July 3, 1941

Germans cross the River Dnieper in the Ukraine

July 10, 1941

Mutual Assistance agreement between British and Soviets

July 12, 1941

British occupy Syria

July 14, 1941

Roosevelt freeses Japanese assets in United States and suspends relations

July 26, 1941

Goring instructs Heydrich to prepare for the Final Solution

July 31, 1941

United States announces an oil embargo against aggressor states

August 1, 1941

Roosevelt and Churchill announce the Atlantic Charter

August 14, 1941

Nazi siege of Leningrad begins

August 20, 1941

Nazis order Jews to wear yellow stars

September 1, 1941

First experimental use of gas chambers at Auschwitz

September 3, 1941

Nazis take Kiev

September 19, 1941

Nazis murder 33,771 Jews at Kiev

September 29, 1941

Operation Typhoon begins (German advance on Moscow)

October 2, 1941

Germans take Odessa

October 16, 1941

Germans take Kharkov

October 24, 1941

Germans reach Sevastopol

October 30, 1941

British aircraft carrier Ark Royal is sunk off Gibraltar by a U-boat

November 13, 1941

German take Rostov

November 20, 1941

Soviet troops retake Rostov

November 27, 1941

German attack on Moscow is abandoned

December 5, 1941

Soviet Army launches a major counter-offensive around Moscow

December 6, 1941

Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

Hitler issues the Night and Fog decree

December 7, 1941

United States and Britain declare war on Japan

December 8, 1941

Hitler declares war on the United States

December 11, 1941

Rommel begins a retreat to El Agheila in North Africa

December 16, 1941

Hitler takes complete control of the German Army

December 19, 1941

Declaration of the United Nations signed by 26 Allied Nations

January 1, 1942

Germans begin a U-boat offensive along east coast of USA

January 13, 1942

SS Leader Heydrich holds the Wannseee Conference to coordinate the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question'

January 20, 1942

Rommel's counter-offensive from El Agheila begins

January 21, 1942

First American forces arrive in Great Britain

January 26, 1942

Japanese-Americans sent to relocation centers

April 1, 1942

German air raids begin against cathedral cities in Britain

April 23, 1942

German summer offensive begins in the Crimea

May 8, 1942

Rommel begins an offensive against the Gazala Line

May 26, 1942

SS Leader Heydrich attacked in Prague

May 27, 1942

First thousand-bomber British air raid (against Cologne)

May 30, 1942

Mass murder of Jews by gassing begins at Auschwitz

June 1942

Heydrich dies of wounds

June 4, 1942

Germans besiege Sevastopol

June 5, 1942

Nazis liquidate Lidice in reprisal for Heydrich's assassination

June 10, 1942

Rommel captures Tobruk

June 21, 1942

General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrives in London

June 25, 1942

Rommel reaches El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt

June 30, 1942

First Battle of El Alamein

July 1, 1942 - July 30, 1942

Germans take Sevastopol

July 3, 1942

Soviet resistance in the Crimea ends

July 5, 1942

Germans begin a drive toward Stalingrad in the USSR

July 9, 1942

First deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to concentration camps

July 22, 1942

Treblinka extermination camp open

July 22, 1942

British General Bernard Montgomery takes command of Eighth Army in North Africa

August 7, 1942

Stalin and Churchill meet in Moscow

August 12, 1942

First all-American air attack in Europe

August 17, 1942

Massive German air raid on Stalingrad

August 23, 1942

Rommel driven back by Montgomery on the Battle of Alam Halfa

September 2, 1942

Battle of Stalingrad begins

September 13, 1942

A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder

October 5, 1942

Hitler orders the execution of all captured British commandos

October 18,1942

Operation Supercharge (Allies break Axis lines at El Alamein)

November 1, 1942

Operation Torch begins (U.S invasion of North Africa)

November 8, 1942

Germans and Italians invade unoccupied Vichy, France

November 11, 1942

Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad begins

November 19, 1942

Professor Enrico Fermi sets up an atomic reactor in Chicago

December 2, 1942

Rommel withdraws from El Agheila

December 13, 1942

Soviets defeat Italian troops on the River Don in the USSR

December 16, 1942

British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons of mass executions of Jews by Nazis

December 17, 1942

U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged

December 17, 1942

Battle of the Barents Sea between German and British ships

December 31, 1942

Germans begin a withdrawal from the Causasus

January 2, 1943 - January 3, 1943

Soviets begin an offensive against the Germans in Stalingrad

January 10, 1943

Casablanca Conference between Churchill and Roosevelt

January 14, 1943 - January 24, 1943

During the conference, Roosevelt announces the war can end only with 'unconditional German surrender'

January 14, 1943 - January 24, 1943

Montgomery's Eighth Army take Tripoli

January 23, 1943

First bombing raid by Americans on Germany (at Wilhelmshaven)

January 27, 1943

Germans surrender at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler's armies

February 2, 1943

Soviets troops take Kursk

February 8, 1943

Battle of Kasserine Pass between the U.S. 1st Armored Division and Perman Panzers in North Africa

February 14, 1943 - February 25, 1943

Soviets re-take Kharkov

February 16, 1943

Nazis arrest White Rose resistance leaders in Munich

February 18, 1943

Germans begin a withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa

March 2, 1943

Germans re-capture Kharkov

March 15, 1943

Battle of Atlantic climaxes with 27 merchant ships sunk by German U-boats

March 16, 1943 - March 20, 1943

Montgomery's Eighth Army breaks through the Mareth Line in Tunisia

March 20, 1943 - March 28, 1943

Axis forces in Tunisia begin a withdrawal toward Enfidaville as American and British forces link

April 6, 1943 - April 7, 1943

Waffen-SS attacks Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto

April 19, 1943

Allies take Tunisia

May 7, 1943

German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa

May 13, 1943

British air raid on the Ruhr

May 16, 1943 - May 17, 1943

Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto ends

May 16, 1943

Donitz suspends U-boat operations in the North Atlantic

May 22, 1943

'Pointblank' directive to improve Allied bombing strategy issued

June 10, 1943

Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish Ghetto in Poland

June 11, 1943

Germans begin their last offensive against Kursk

July 5, 1943

Allies land in Sicily

July 9, 1943 - July 10, 1943

Allies bomb Rome

July 19, 1943

Americans capture Palermo, Sicily

July 22, 1943

British bombing raid on Hamburg

July 24, 1943

Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies

July 25, 1943 - July 26, 1943

Mussolini arrested and the Italian Fascist government falls

July 25, 1943 - July 26, 1943

Allied air raid causes a firestorm in Hamburg

July 27, 1943 - July 28, 1943

Germans evacuate Sicily

August 12, 1943 - August 17, 1943

Allies reach Messina, Sicily

August 17, 1943

American daylight air raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt in Germany

August 17, 1943

Soviet troops recapture Kharkov

August 23, 1943

Italian surrender to Allies is announced

September 8, 1943

Allied landings at Salerno and Taranto

September 9, 1943

Germans occupy Rome

September 11, 1943

Germans rescue Mussolini

September 12, 1943

Mussolini re-establishes a Fascist government

September 23, 1943

Allies enter Naples, Italy

October 1, 1943

SS-Reichsfuhrer Himmler gives speech at Posen

October 4, 1943

Italy declares war on Germany

October 13, 1943

Second American air raid on Schweinfurt

October 13, 1943

Russians recapture Kiev in the Ukraine

November 6, 1943

Large British air raid on Berlin

November 18, 1943

Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Teheran

November 28, 1943

Soviets launch offensives on the Ukrainian front

December 24, 1943 - December 26, 1943

Soviet troops advance into Poland

January 6, 1944

First attack toward Cassino, Italy

January 17, 1944

Allies land at Anzio in Italy

January 22, 1944

Leningrad relieved after a 900-day siege

January 27, 1944

Allies bomb the monastery at Monte Cassino

February 15, 1944 - February 18, 1944

Germans counter-attack againsst the Anzio beachhead

February 16, 1944

First major daylight bombing raid on Berlin by the Allies

March 4, 1944

Soviet troops begin an offensive on the Belorussian front

March 4, 1944

Second Allied attempt to capture Monte Cassino begins

March 15, 1944

British drop 3000 tons of bombs during an air raid on Hamburg, Germany

March 18, 1944

Soviet troops begin an offensive to liberate Crimea

April 8, 1944

Soviet troops recapture Sevastopol

May 9, 1944

Allies attack the Gustav Line south of Rome

May 11, 1944

Germans surrender in the Crimea

May 12, 1944

Germans withdraw to the Adolf Hitler Line

May 15, 1944

Germans retreat from Anzio

May 25, 1944

Allies enter Rome

June 5, 1944

D-Day landings on the northern coast of France

June 6, 1944

Soviet offensive against the Finnish front begins

June 9, 1944

Nazis liquidate the town of Oradour-sur-Glane in France

June 10, 1944

First German V-1 rocket attack on Britain

June 13, 1944

Operation Bagration begins (the Soviet summer offensive)

June 22, 1944

U.S. troops liberate Cherbourg, France

June 27, 1944

Soviets capture Minsk

July 3, 1944

'Battle of the Hedgegrows' in Normandy

July 3, 1944

British and Canadian troops capture Caen, France

July 9, 1944

U.S. troops reach St. Lo, France

July 18, 1944

Assassination attempt by German Army officers against Hitler fails

July 20, 1944

Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek

July 24, 1944

Operation Cobra (U.S. troops break out west of St. Lo)

July 25, 1944 - July 30, 1944

Soviet troops take Brest-Litovsk

July 28, 1944

U.S. troops take Coutances

July 28, 1944

Polish Home Army uprising against Nazis in Warsaw begins

August 1, 1944

U.S. troops reach Avranches

August 1, 1944

Anne Frank and family arrested by the Gestapo in Amsterdam, Holland

August 4, 1944

Germans begin a major counter-attack toward Avranches

August 7, 1944

Operation Dragoon begins (the Allied invasion of Southern France)

August 15, 1944

Resistance uprising in Paris

August 19, 1944

Soviet offensive in the Balkans begins with an attack on Romania

August 19, 1944 - August 20, 1944

Allies encircle Germans in the Falaise Pocket

August 20, 1944

Liberation of Paris

August 25, 1944

Slovak uprising begins

August 29, 1944

Soviet troops take Bucharest

August 31, 1944

Verdun, Dieppe, Artois, Rouen, Abbeville, Antwerp, and Brussels liberated by Allies

September 1, 1944 - September 4, 1944

Finland and the Soviet Union agree to a cease-fire

September 4, 1944

U.S. troops reach the Siegfried Line in Western Germany

September 13, 1944

Operation Market Garden begins (Allied airborne assault on Holland)

September 17, 1944

Soviet troops occupy Estonia

September 26, 1944

Warsaw Uprising ends as the Polish Home Army surrenders to the Germans

October 2, 1944

Soviet troops capture Riga

October 10, 1944 - October 29, 1944

Rommel commits suicide

October 14, 1944

Allies liberate Athens

October 14, 1944

Massive German surrender at Aachen, Germany

October 21, 1944

Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz

October 30, 1944

French troops drive through the 'Beffort Gap' to reach the Rhine

November 20, 1944

French capture Strasbourg

November 24, 1944

Civil War in Greece

December 4, 1944

Athens placed under martial law

December 4, 1944

Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes

December 16, 1944 - December 27, 1944

Waffen--SS murder 81 U.S. POW's at Malmedy

December 17, 1944

Patton relieves Bastogne

December 26, 1944

Soviet troops besiege Budapest

December 27, 1944

Germans withdraw from the Ardennes

January 1, 1945 - January 17, 1945

U.S. 1st and 3rd Armier link up after a month long separation during the Battle of the Bulge

January 16, 1945

Soviet troops capture Warsaw, Poland

January 17, 1945

Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz

January 26, 1945

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Yalta

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945

Dresden is destroyed by a firestorm after Allied bombing raids

February 13, 1945 - February 14, 1945

Last German offensive of the war begins to defend oil fields in Hungary

March 6, 1945

Allies take Cologne and establish a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen

March 7, 1945

Soviet troops capture Danzig

March 30, 1945

Allies discover stolen Nazi art and wealth hidden in German salt mines

April 1945

U.S. troops encircle Germans in the Ruhr

April 1, 1945

Allied offensive in Northern Italy

April 1, 1945

Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps

April 12, 1945

Harry Truman becomes President of the U.S.

April 12, 1945

President Roosevelt dies

April 12, 1945

Soviet troops begin their final attack in Berlin

April 16, 1945

Americans enter Nuremberg

April 16, 1945

German forces in the Ruhr surrender

April 18, 1945

Soviets reaches Berlin

April 21, 1945

Mussolini is captured and hanged by Italian partisans

April 28, 1945

Allies take Venice, Italy

April 28, 1945

U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau

April 29, 1945

Adolf Hitler commits suicide

April 30, 1945

German troops in Italy surrender

May 2, 1945

Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Allies

May 7, 1945

V-E (Victory in Europe) Day

May 8, 1945

Hermann Goring is captured by members of the U.S. 7th Army

May 9, 1945

German High Command and Provisional Government imprisoned

May 23, 1945

SS-Reichsfuhrer Himmler commits suicide

May 23, 1945

Allies divide up Germany and Berlin an take over the government

June 5, 1945

United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco

June 26, 1945

American, British, and French troops move into Berlin

July 1, 1945

First U.S. atomic bomb test

July 16, 1945

Potsdam Conference begins

July 16, 1945

Atlee suceeds Churchill as British Prime Minister

July 26, 1945

First atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan

August 6, 1945

Soviets declares war on Japan and invade Manchuria

August 8, 1945

Second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan

August 9, 1945

Japanese agree to unconditional surrender

August 14, 1945

Japanese sign the surrender agreement

September 2, 1945

V-J (Victory over Japan) Day

September 2, 1945

United Nations is born

October 24, 1945

Nuremberg war crimes trials begin

November 20, 1945

Hermann Goring commits suicide two hours before his scheduled execution

October 16, 1946