History United Kingdom & Ireland

Time Periods

Celts

600 BC - 43 AD

The Celts are important in British history because they are the ancestors of many of the people in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Cornwall today.

Romans

43 AD - 410 AD

The Angles, Saxons and Jutes

430 - 850

Britain was no longer protected by the strong Roman armies, the country was raided by Germanic tribes. After AD 430 they began to settle.
The Anglo-Saxon invaders named the country England, the land of the Angles.

Prehistory

Stonehenge

3000 BC - 2000 BC

Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire

Bluestones from South Wales added

2400 BC

Celtic & Roman Britain 600BC - 410AD

The Celts are important in British history because they are the ancestors of many of the people in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Cornwall today.

Arrival of Celtic influence

600 BC - 500 BC
  • Tribal kingdoms ruled by Chieftains
  • Increased trading with mainland (Romans/Gauls)
  • territorial and often expansionist
  • fearsome warriors
  • mining and manufacture, artistry, trade
  • Celtic men wore shirts and breeches (knee-length trousers), and striped or checked cloaks fastened by a pin

Emperor Julius Caesar

55 BC

The Romans first attempted an invasion of Britain in 55 BC and 54 BC under Julius Caesar but failed.
- Collaborating with the Gauls who were by then under Roman rule.
- Tactics and chariots underestimated -> withdrew
- No reinforcements weather -> withdrew

Emperor Claudius

43 AD

in 43 AD under Emperor Claudius
- Trade between Britain and the Roman Empire had vastly increased -> Roman army met with assorted levels of resistance
- some tribal leaders fiercely resisted the Roman invaders others took a more pragmatic view and quickly became client-kings, acquiring both wealth and status as a result.

The Romans 43 AD - 410 AD

“Britain” comes from the word “Pretani”, the Greco-Roman word for the inhabitants of Britain. The Romans mispronounced the word and called the island “Britannia”.

Hadrian's Wall

122 - 130

strong wall along the northern border, named after the Emperor Hadrian who planned it.