AP Euro

By: Angela Saldana Period: 5


The Black Death

1346 - 1400

A plague carried by rats imported from ships out of Asia that led to the death of 1/3 of the population in Europe.

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

Time of peace, structure, and intellectual beginnings throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture. Was followed by the sacking of Rome.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Organized voyages along the west coast of Africa. Led to the establishment of trading posts along the West African coast.

Gutenberg Bible printed


First works of the printing press, led to the spread of the vernacular language.

The Printing Press


[1.1] [OS-2]
Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the first printing press. The printing press promoted freedom of expression, and challenged the power of established authorities.

Fall of Constantinople

Apr 6, 1453 - May 29, 1453

The capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire. It marked the end of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Edirne to Constantinople.

Desiderus Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Humanist. Wrote in Latin instead of vernacular. Wanted to reform the Catholic Church.

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella

October 18, 1469

Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, beginning a joining reign that would unite all the dominions of Spain and raise the nation to a dominant world power. This lead to the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition, a powerful and brutal force of homogenization in the Spanish nation.

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Challenged the geocentric view of the universe. Presented the heliocentric view which described the earth revolving around the sun.

Northern Renaissance

1480 - 1550

Ideas of the Italian Renaissance began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe. Ended after the Thirty Years War.

Voyages of Christopher Columbus

1492 - 1502

Search for a westward route to Asia, to access the sources of spices and other oriental goods. Led to the discovery of a New World between Europe and Asia. Columbus participated in a total of four voyages to the Americas, which began the European exploration and colonization of the Americas, which then lead to the Columbian Exchange.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1776

[1.4] [INT-6]
Exchange of goods, culture, and disease between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution

Treaty of Tordesillas


Divided the discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues, west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.

French Invade Italy


King Charles VIII began this invasion and it was ended by King Louis XII.

Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper

1495 - 1498

This painting was commissioned as part of a plan to renovate the church by Leonardo's patron, Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. It represents the scene of The Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, as it is told in the Gospel of John, 13:21. Portrays the reactions that occurred among the Twelve Disciples when Jesus announced that one of them would betray him.

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

Search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft involving moral panic or mass hysteria.

Birth of Charles V of Hapsburg


Became Lord of the Netherlands in 1515, King of Spain in 1516, and
was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519.

Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa


Shows the work of Renaissance art and its importance.

Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, fresco

1508 - 1512

Portrays High Renaissance Art. It was painted at the commission of Pope Julius II. Michelangelo proposed to paint the Old Testament scenes found on the vault, divided by the architecture that he uses to organize the composition.The narrative begins at the altar and is divided into three sections. In the first three paintings, Michelangelo tells the story of The Creation of the Heavens and Earth, then the Creation of Adam and Eve and the Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, and finally the story of Noah and the Great Flood. Michelangelo doesn't stop there, he also portrays many other scenes from the bible in his frescoes

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Protestant reformer. Believed in the doctrine of predestination and the absolute omnipotence of God. Influenced the Huguenots, Presbyterians, and Puritans.

Henry VIII Becomes King

1509 - 1547

Henry VII sons married Catherine of Aragon to improve relations with the House of Hapsburg. After his older son passed away, his younger son also married her, making him King Henry VIII

Machiavelli's The Prince


The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, written by an Italian diplomat and political theorist, Niccolò Machiavelli. It was in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time. The general theme of the book was accepting that the aims of princes, such as glory and power, can justify the use of immoral means.

Luther & the Ninety-five Theses


Luther was against the selling of indulgences by the church, as a result he argued that indulgences lead Christians to avoid true repentance and sorrow for sin.

First Circumnavigation of the World

1520 - 1522

Spanish expedition that sailed from Seville in 1519 under the leadership of Ferdinand Magellan.


1520 - 1580

High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, resulting in works that are asymmetrical.

Diet of Worms


Lead to the formation of the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his followers outlawed.

The German Peasants' War


This war was caused by the complaints that nobles had seized village common lands, and soon led to open attacks on monasteries, as well as prosperous farms. Luther was against the use of violence demonstrated by these peasants. Strengthened the authority of the German nobility.

The Act of Supremacy


Declared the English king to be the "Protector and Only Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England."

Society of Jesus


Those who joined were called Jesuits. Led by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556). They were a spiritual army that emphasized absolute obedience.

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1687

Period of Scientific Growth. Many philosophers studied and learned a great deal about the subjects of astronomy, biology, and physics.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The council was called in response to the Protestant Reformation, and established many of the priciples that would guide the Church for many years to come. The Council of Trent consisted of 25 sessions defining heresies committed by Protestantism and, in response to them, key statements of the Church's doctrine and teachings.

Michael Servetus Death


Burned at stake by Calvin in Geneva, due to him denying the Trinity.

The Peace of Augsburg


Religious civil war between catholics led by Charles V, and Protestants led by German princes broke German society. This peace treaty let the German prince determine the religion of his state .

Dutch Golden Age Art

1560 - 1650

Painted the reality of its objects. In the moment artwork.

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

Formalized the empirical method into a theory of inductive reasoning.

The French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots in the Kingdom of France. The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France and the Roman Catholic House of Guise. Second deadliest European religious war. Towards the end of the war Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedom by the Edict of Nantes, and the monarchy lost a substantial amount of power.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Supported the Copernican theory. Formulated laws of motion and inertia.

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

Protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Laws of planetary motion. The planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits. Planets move more rapidly as their orbits approach the sun. The time a planet takes to orbit the sun varies proportionately with its distance from the sun.

Spain wins Battle of Leponto


Drove the turks out of invading Spain, last major Spanish navel victory.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots gathered in Paris for the wedding of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre ( Huguenot leader). Ignited a gruesome civil war between Catholics and Huguenots.

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

Alliance of the provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands to drive Spanish mercenary troops from the country and to promote a peace treaty with the rebelling provinces of Holland and Zealand.


1580 - 1800

Grand art pieces, elaborate

Spain acquires Portugal


Spain was looking to expand under Philip II.

England defeated the Spanish Armada and gained control of the seas


The main aim of the Spanish Armada was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Tudor establishment of Protestantism in England.

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Used deductive reasoning to reach scientific laws. Mathematician.

Edict of Nantes


Granted the Calvinist Protestants of France, Huguenots, substantial rights in the nation.

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

[2.2] [INT-5]
Period where agriculture was efficiently produced. Lead to the industrial Revolution.

James I

1603 - 1625

Believed royal authority came directly from God. "Divine right of kings"

The Bohemian Phase (First)

1618 - 1625

Religious civil war between the Catholic League, led by Emperor Ferdinand II and the Protestant Union, led by Frederick V. Habsburgs and Catholics gained control of Bohemia.

The Danish Phase (Second)

1625 - 1629

Albert of Wallenstein led the imperial armies in the crushing of the protestant forces. Granted with victory, Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution, restoring all catholic properties lost to the Protestants.

Rule of Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Levied taxes without parliamentary consent. Responsible for English Civil War.

Petition of Right


No one should by compelled to pay any taxes without consent from Parliament. Also, no one should be imprisoned without due process of law.

The Swedish Phase (Third)

1630 - 1635

The Protestants, Dutch, and French turned to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden for help. Gustavus defeated Wallensten and kept the Habsburgs from uniting the German states.

Charles II

1630 - 1685

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland

The French Phase (Fourth)

1635 - 1648

French, Dutch, and Swedish armies destroyed German land.

The Long Parliament

1640 - 1648

Executed Laud and passed a number of laws limiting royal power.

The English Civil War

1642 - 1649

The war began as a result of a conflict over the power of the monarchy and the rights of Parliament. During the beginnings of the war, the followers of the parliament expected to retain Charles as king, but with expanded powers for Parliament.

The Peace of Westphalia


Rulers were allowed to decide the religious faith in their territory.

The Commonwealth

1649 - 1653

Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. Oliver Cromwell and a one- house parliament was in full power. Oliver Cromwell soon became "Lord Protector", and established a one man rule supported by an army.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Series of rebellions in France that played a key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris

Leviathan (Hobbes)


Expresses the structure of society and legitimate government, and is labeled as one of the earliest examples of social contract theory. Argues for a rule by an absolute sovereign.



Newton published this book as a way to combine Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Galileo's laws of inertia, and Newton's own conception of gravity

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

The overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange.

The Bill of Rights


The members of Parliament had the right to free debate, taxation required parliamentary consent, laws could be made only with the consent of parliament, the monarch could not be Catholic, Parliament was not allowed to hold frequent sessions and they could only be dissolved by its own consent, and lastly, no subject could be arrested and detained without legal consent.


1694 - 1778

Championed religious tolerance. Found organized christianity intolerable.

The War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

A fear of an upset of the balance of power. Left France battered and weakened.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1788

[2.3] [OS-9]
Author of " The Social Contract", and "Emile". Had the belief that since law relies on the general will, the state is based on a social contract.

The Peace of Utrecht


It ended Louis XIV's plan to dominate Europe. Stimulated that the crowns of Spain and France should never be worn by the same monarch. Granted England the right to supply African Slaves to Spanish America.

The Pragmatic Sanction


Promised the succession of Habsburg's Charles VI's oldest daughter, Maria Theresa, the throne. Guaranteed the Habsburg's lands to indivisibility.


1715 - 1800

Art style. Lighthearted and frivolous scenes. Light-colored pastels.


1715 - 1800

Graceful approach to the Baroque. Used lighter colors.

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Economist who wrote " An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations". Advocated free trade.

Edmund Burke

1729 - 1797

Author of "Reflections on the Revolution in France". Brought attention to the radicalism and violence of the French Revolution.

The War of the Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Made up of several rivalries, the Austrian- Prussian rivalry, & The Anglo- French rivalry. At the end of this, Prussia remained a great power.

Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Military strategist who lead Prussia into successful campaigns during his reign.

Olympia de Gouges

1748 - 1793

French feminist. Author of the "Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen".

English Industrial Revolution began

1750 - 1850

This transition included going from hand production methods to machines.

The Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia was saved from defeat when Russia's new tsar Peter III dropped out of the war.

Diplomatic Revolution


Shift of support between England and France due to Austria and Prussia. Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

Wrote " A Vindication of the Rights of Women". Argues that the only reason women appear to be inferior to men is based on a lack of education.

The Spinning Jenny

Approx. 1760

Invented by James Hargreaves. Made it possible for a single weaver to handle six to eight threads at a time.

The Treaty of Paris


The British gained French Canada and the land between the Appalachian Mountains. France acquired Caribbean sugar islands and some parts of India. Prussia retained Silesia.

Steam Engine


James Watt creates the first steam engine, which rapidly replaced waterpower in Britain textile factories.

Water Frame


Invented by Richard Arkwright. Used waterpower from rapidly moving streams to drive spinning machines.

Prince Klemens Von Metternich

1773 - 1859

Austrian foreign minister and leader of the Congress of Vienna. Dedicated to the teachings of conservatism.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American colonies finally separated from Great Britain.


1780 - 1820

Depiction of classical heroes. Portrays self-sacrifice and devotion to the state. Simplicity and symmetry.

Power Loom


Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom that used waterpower, like the water frame, to speed up weaving

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Meeting of the National Convention. The National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.

The storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

Angry mobs were protesting the increasingly large price of bread. The mob marched toward the Bastille, a royal prison. The fall of the Bastille marked an important act against royal despotism.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

August, 1789

Proclaimed all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights ." Provide freedom of speech and the press.

Womens March on Versailles

October 5, 1789 - October 6, 1789

Thousands of women marched to Versailles demanding cheap bread and insisting on the fact that the royal family move to Paris.

Execution of Louis XVI

1792 - 1795

The National Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic. Condemned Louis XVI to death.

The Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Intended to save the Revolution from foreign and domestic enemies.

Combination Acts

1799 - 1800

Prohibited British workers from organizing to better their conditions.Parliament soon repealed these acts in 1825.

Napoleon proclaimed Emperor of France


Napoleon is awarded the title Emperor of France. soon led to the elimination of Th Holy Roman Empire

The Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Created a balance of power, restored Bourbons to the French throne, combined Belgium with the Netherlands to form a single Netherlands, and created a confederation of 39 German states all controlled by Austrian dominance.

Napoleon's Final Battle


Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria formed an alliance that soon defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Nations.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Coauthored The Communist Manifesto. Believed in the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.

The French Revolution


disagreement with Charles X's arbitrary policies caused a series of riots. Delacroix portrayed it as a group of people teaming up against tyranny.



Free-trade union established among the major German states.

The Chartist Movement


working class representatives created a People's Charter that demanded universal suffrage . Parliament refused to listen to their wants.

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844 - 1900

Believed you should reject reason and embrace the irrational.

Irish Potato Famine

1845 - 1849

Killed approximately 1 million Irish. Period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration.

The Great Exhibition


Held to celebrate Britain's economic superiority.

The Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Tsar Nicholas I saw an opportunity to dominate Turkey and create an entrance into the Mediterranean. France , Britain, and Turkey captured the Russian fortress. Napoleon III broke the alliance between Austria and Russia. Russia was defeated

War with Austria


French and Piedmont armies defeated the Austrians. All at the same time. Italian nationalists revolted across northern Italy

On the Orgin of Species by Charles Darwin


Foundation of evolutionary biology. Introduced the scientific theory that species evolve over time.

Emancipation Edict


Tsar Alexander II issued an Emancipation Edict to try and free the serfs. They soon became free, however the peasants still did not own the land.

War with Denmark


Bismarck was the main cause of leading Prussia into a war with Denmark to win Schleswig and Holstein. The victory allowed Bismarck to begin the elimination of Austria.

The Seven Weeks' War


Prussia's army crushed the Austrians in a quick conflict, which led to Austria agreeing to the dissolution of the German Confederation.

Dual Monarchy


Austria agreed to creating a dual monarchy, called Austria-Hungary.

Reform Bill


Extended the suffrage to Great Britain's urban workers. British women were still denied the right to vote.

War with France


Prussians successfully invaded France and forced Napoleon III to surrender. France's economy took a huge hit. Germany became a great power

The Paris Commune


The citizens of Paris rejected the treaty and the new conservative government. Radicals formed a "commune". The army took control of the radicals and crushed all opposition. Poisoned French politics

Albert Einstein

1879 - 1955

Theory of relativity. New physics contributed to the uncertainties of the postwar world.

The Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

Created rules for the divvying up of Africa amongst the European powers. Declared the Congo to be the "Congo Free State."

Revolution of 1905


Cossacks fired upon a peaceful crowd of workers in St. Petersburg. This became known as a "Bloody Sunday" massacre. Led to Nicholas II approving the election of a Russian parliament, Duma.

Russian Revolution

1917 - 1924

Led to civil war and the creation of a communist state.

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk


Ended Bolshevik Russia's act in WWI. Negotiated by Vladimir Lenin due to his realization that the war could no longer be won.

The Treaty of Versailles


Created the League of Nations to settle disputes without resorting to war. Forced Germany to sign a war-guilt clause. Dissolved the dual monarchy, Austria-Hungary, into the separate states of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.

The Dawes Plan


Plan to reestablish a sound German currency and limit reparation payments. Provided a series of American loans to Germany.

The Locarno Pact


Created an agreement between France and Germany to regard mutual frontiers. Was the beginning of a brief period of reduced tensions between the European powers.

The Five - Year Plans


Designed to transform the Soviet Unions economic structure.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact


Outlawed war as an use of national policy

The Great Depression

1929 - 1939

[2.4] [PP-8]
Economic depression after a major fall in stock prices.



Nazis passed laws forbidding Jews to hold public office. The Nuremberg Laws soon followed.

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor Germany


Start of the rule of Nazis based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism.

Invasion of Ethiopia


Mussolini ordered an invasion of Ethiopia to test the League of Nations' system of security.

Nuremberg Laws


Stripped Jews of all rights and citizenship.

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Nationalist forces rebelled against the Republic. Hitler and Mussolini sent men to support the Nationalists.

The Munich Conference


Surrendered the Sudetenland to Adolf Hitler

World War II

1939 - 1945

Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. All because of a 10 year nonaggression pact.

Winston Churchill became prime minister of Britain


His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the days when the British Commonwealth stood alone in its active war against the Nazis.

The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

August 1939

[4.1] [SP-6]
Hitler and Joseph Stalin promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in a war. Divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet lands.

D-Day landing in Normandy by allies


Largest seaborne invasion in history. German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were at least 10,000.

Hitler committed suicide; Germany surrendered


Germany's military situation was on the verge of total collapse. To the Nazi leadership, it was clear that the battle of Berlin would be the final battle of the war in Europe due to Germany becoming more weak.

Cold War took place between USSR and the United States

1946 - 1990

Tension after World War II between the Soviet Union and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

The Truman Doctrine


Declared that the United States would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugations by armed minorities or by outside pressures."

The Marshall Plan


[4.2] [INT-8]
Program made to provide economic aid for the promotion of a recovery for Europe, while preventing the spread of Soviet beliefs.

North Atlantic Pact


Established NATO to coordinate the defense of its members. Demanded to move its headquarters from Paris to brussels due to Charles de Gaulle withdrawing French forces from the american controlled , NATO.

Death of Stalin


Khrushchev came into power. He openly denounced Stalin's policies.

European Economic Community


Eliminated trade barriers, and emerged as the driving force behind economoc integration.

USSR launched Sputnik into space


Sputnik was an artificial satellite. It was feared the U.S would launch a satellite before the Soviet Union.

Paris Summit Conference


Negotiations to limit testing of nuclear weapons. Recognize East Germany.

Cuban Missile Crisis


Close to a nuclear war

Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Leader of The Soviet Union


Introduced Glasnot, Perestroika, and Demokratizatsiya.

Fall of Berlin Wall


Ended the symbol of Communist oppression, and represented unity. Marked the end of the Cold War.

The Maastricht Treaty


Created the European Union, also established a central bank for the European Union.

The European Union released the Euro as a new form of currency


Created a universal system of currency in Europe