By: Angela Saldana Period: 5
A plague carried by rats imported from ships out of Asia that led to the death of 1/3 of the population in Europe.
Time of peace, structure, and intellectual beginnings throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture. Was followed by the sacking of Rome.
Organized voyages along the west coast of Africa. Led to the establishment of trading posts along the West African coast.
First works of the printing press, led to the spread of the vernacular language.
Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the first printing press. The printing press promoted freedom of expression, and challenged the power of established authorities.
The capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire. It marked the end of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages. After the conquest, Sultan Mehmed II transferred the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Edirne to Constantinople.
Humanist. Wrote in Latin instead of vernacular. Wanted to reform the Catholic Church.
Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, beginning a joining reign that would unite all the dominions of Spain and raise the nation to a dominant world power. This lead to the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition, a powerful and brutal force of homogenization in the Spanish nation.
Challenged the geocentric view of the universe. Presented the heliocentric view which described the earth revolving around the sun.
Ideas of the Italian Renaissance began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe. Ended after the Thirty Years War.
Search for a westward route to Asia, to access the sources of spices and other oriental goods. Led to the discovery of a New World between Europe and Asia. Columbus participated in a total of four voyages to the Americas, which began the European exploration and colonization of the Americas, which then lead to the Columbian Exchange.
Exchange of goods, culture, and disease between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution
Divided the discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues, west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
King Charles VIII began this invasion and it was ended by King Louis XII.
This painting was commissioned as part of a plan to renovate the church by Leonardo's patron, Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. It represents the scene of The Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, as it is told in the Gospel of John, 13:21. Portrays the reactions that occurred among the Twelve Disciples when Jesus announced that one of them would betray him.
Search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
Became Lord of the Netherlands in 1515, King of Spain in 1516, and
was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519.
Shows the work of Renaissance art and its importance.
Portrays High Renaissance Art. It was painted at the commission of Pope Julius II. Michelangelo proposed to paint the Old Testament scenes found on the vault, divided by the architecture that he uses to organize the composition.The narrative begins at the altar and is divided into three sections. In the first three paintings, Michelangelo tells the story of The Creation of the Heavens and Earth, then the Creation of Adam and Eve and the Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, and finally the story of Noah and the Great Flood. Michelangelo doesn't stop there, he also portrays many other scenes from the bible in his frescoes
Protestant reformer. Believed in the doctrine of predestination and the absolute omnipotence of God. Influenced the Huguenots, Presbyterians, and Puritans.
Henry VII sons married Catherine of Aragon to improve relations with the House of Hapsburg. After his older son passed away, his younger son also married her, making him King Henry VIII
The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, written by an Italian diplomat and political theorist, Niccolò Machiavelli. It was in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time. The general theme of the book was accepting that the aims of princes, such as glory and power, can justify the use of immoral means.
Luther was against the selling of indulgences by the church, as a result he argued that indulgences lead Christians to avoid true repentance and sorrow for sin.
Spanish expedition that sailed from Seville in 1519 under the leadership of Ferdinand Magellan.
High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, resulting in works that are asymmetrical.
Lead to the formation of the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his followers outlawed.
This war was caused by the complaints that nobles had seized village common lands, and soon led to open attacks on monasteries, as well as prosperous farms. Luther was against the use of violence demonstrated by these peasants. Strengthened the authority of the German nobility.
Declared the English king to be the "Protector and Only Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England."
Those who joined were called Jesuits. Led by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556). They were a spiritual army that emphasized absolute obedience.
Period of Scientific Growth. Many philosophers studied and learned a great deal about the subjects of astronomy, biology, and physics.
The council was called in response to the Protestant Reformation, and established many of the priciples that would guide the Church for many years to come. The Council of Trent consisted of 25 sessions defining heresies committed by Protestantism and, in response to them, key statements of the Church's doctrine and teachings.
Burned at stake by Calvin in Geneva, due to him denying the Trinity.
Religious civil war between catholics led by Charles V, and Protestants led by German princes broke German society. This peace treaty let the German prince determine the religion of his state .
Painted the reality of its objects. In the moment artwork.
Formalized the empirical method into a theory of inductive reasoning.
Fought between Roman Catholics and Huguenots in the Kingdom of France. The conflict involved disputes between the aristocratic houses of France and the Roman Catholic House of Guise. Second deadliest European religious war. Towards the end of the war Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedom by the Edict of Nantes, and the monarchy lost a substantial amount of power.
Supported the Copernican theory. Formulated laws of motion and inertia.
Protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.
Laws of planetary motion. The planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits. Planets move more rapidly as their orbits approach the sun. The time a planet takes to orbit the sun varies proportionately with its distance from the sun.
Drove the turks out of invading Spain, last major Spanish navel victory.
Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots gathered in Paris for the wedding of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre ( Huguenot leader). Ignited a gruesome civil war between Catholics and Huguenots.
Alliance of the provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands to drive Spanish mercenary troops from the country and to promote a peace treaty with the rebelling provinces of Holland and Zealand.
Grand art pieces, elaborate
Spain was looking to expand under Philip II.
The main aim of the Spanish Armada was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Tudor establishment of Protestantism in England.
Used deductive reasoning to reach scientific laws. Mathematician.
Granted the Calvinist Protestants of France, Huguenots, substantial rights in the nation.
Period where agriculture was efficiently produced. Lead to the industrial Revolution.
Believed royal authority came directly from God. "Divine right of kings"
Religious civil war between the Catholic League, led by Emperor Ferdinand II and the Protestant Union, led by Frederick V. Habsburgs and Catholics gained control of Bohemia.
Albert of Wallenstein led the imperial armies in the crushing of the protestant forces. Granted with victory, Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution, restoring all catholic properties lost to the Protestants.
Levied taxes without parliamentary consent. Responsible for English Civil War.
No one should by compelled to pay any taxes without consent from Parliament. Also, no one should be imprisoned without due process of law.
The Protestants, Dutch, and French turned to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden for help. Gustavus defeated Wallensten and kept the Habsburgs from uniting the German states.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland
French, Dutch, and Swedish armies destroyed German land.
Executed Laud and passed a number of laws limiting royal power.
The war began as a result of a conflict over the power of the monarchy and the rights of Parliament. During the beginnings of the war, the followers of the parliament expected to retain Charles as king, but with expanded powers for Parliament.
Rulers were allowed to decide the religious faith in their territory.
Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. Oliver Cromwell and a one- house parliament was in full power. Oliver Cromwell soon became "Lord Protector", and established a one man rule supported by an army.
Series of rebellions in France that played a key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris
Expresses the structure of society and legitimate government, and is labeled as one of the earliest examples of social contract theory. Argues for a rule by an absolute sovereign.
Newton published this book as a way to combine Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Galileo's laws of inertia, and Newton's own conception of gravity
The overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange.
The members of Parliament had the right to free debate, taxation required parliamentary consent, laws could be made only with the consent of parliament, the monarch could not be Catholic, Parliament was not allowed to hold frequent sessions and they could only be dissolved by its own consent, and lastly, no subject could be arrested and detained without legal consent.
Championed religious tolerance. Found organized christianity intolerable.
A fear of an upset of the balance of power. Left France battered and weakened.
Author of " The Social Contract", and "Emile". Had the belief that since law relies on the general will, the state is based on a social contract.
It ended Louis XIV's plan to dominate Europe. Stimulated that the crowns of Spain and France should never be worn by the same monarch. Granted England the right to supply African Slaves to Spanish America.
Promised the succession of Habsburg's Charles VI's oldest daughter, Maria Theresa, the throne. Guaranteed the Habsburg's lands to indivisibility.
Art style. Lighthearted and frivolous scenes. Light-colored pastels.
Graceful approach to the Baroque. Used lighter colors.
Economist who wrote " An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations". Advocated free trade.
Author of "Reflections on the Revolution in France". Brought attention to the radicalism and violence of the French Revolution.
Made up of several rivalries, the Austrian- Prussian rivalry, & The Anglo- French rivalry. At the end of this, Prussia remained a great power.
Military strategist who lead Prussia into successful campaigns during his reign.
French feminist. Author of the "Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen".
This transition included going from hand production methods to machines.
Prussia was saved from defeat when Russia's new tsar Peter III dropped out of the war.
Shift of support between England and France due to Austria and Prussia. Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France
Wrote " A Vindication of the Rights of Women". Argues that the only reason women appear to be inferior to men is based on a lack of education.
Invented by James Hargreaves. Made it possible for a single weaver to handle six to eight threads at a time.
The British gained French Canada and the land between the Appalachian Mountains. France acquired Caribbean sugar islands and some parts of India. Prussia retained Silesia.
James Watt creates the first steam engine, which rapidly replaced waterpower in Britain textile factories.
Invented by Richard Arkwright. Used waterpower from rapidly moving streams to drive spinning machines.
Austrian foreign minister and leader of the Congress of Vienna. Dedicated to the teachings of conservatism.
The American colonies finally separated from Great Britain.
Depiction of classical heroes. Portrays self-sacrifice and devotion to the state. Simplicity and symmetry.
Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom that used waterpower, like the water frame, to speed up weaving
Meeting of the National Convention. The National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.
Angry mobs were protesting the increasingly large price of bread. The mob marched toward the Bastille, a royal prison. The fall of the Bastille marked an important act against royal despotism.
Proclaimed all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights ." Provide freedom of speech and the press.
Thousands of women marched to Versailles demanding cheap bread and insisting on the fact that the royal family move to Paris.
The National Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic. Condemned Louis XVI to death.
Intended to save the Revolution from foreign and domestic enemies.
Prohibited British workers from organizing to better their conditions.Parliament soon repealed these acts in 1825.
Napoleon is awarded the title Emperor of France. soon led to the elimination of Th Holy Roman Empire
Created a balance of power, restored Bourbons to the French throne, combined Belgium with the Netherlands to form a single Netherlands, and created a confederation of 39 German states all controlled by Austrian dominance.
Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria formed an alliance that soon defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Nations.
Coauthored The Communist Manifesto. Believed in the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
disagreement with Charles X's arbitrary policies caused a series of riots. Delacroix portrayed it as a group of people teaming up against tyranny.
Free-trade union established among the major German states.
working class representatives created a People's Charter that demanded universal suffrage . Parliament refused to listen to their wants.
Believed you should reject reason and embrace the irrational.
Killed approximately 1 million Irish. Period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration.
Held to celebrate Britain's economic superiority.
Tsar Nicholas I saw an opportunity to dominate Turkey and create an entrance into the Mediterranean. France , Britain, and Turkey captured the Russian fortress. Napoleon III broke the alliance between Austria and Russia. Russia was defeated
French and Piedmont armies defeated the Austrians. All at the same time. Italian nationalists revolted across northern Italy
Foundation of evolutionary biology. Introduced the scientific theory that species evolve over time.
Tsar Alexander II issued an Emancipation Edict to try and free the serfs. They soon became free, however the peasants still did not own the land.
Bismarck was the main cause of leading Prussia into a war with Denmark to win Schleswig and Holstein. The victory allowed Bismarck to begin the elimination of Austria.
Prussia's army crushed the Austrians in a quick conflict, which led to Austria agreeing to the dissolution of the German Confederation.
Austria agreed to creating a dual monarchy, called Austria-Hungary.
Extended the suffrage to Great Britain's urban workers. British women were still denied the right to vote.
Prussians successfully invaded France and forced Napoleon III to surrender. France's economy took a huge hit. Germany became a great power
The citizens of Paris rejected the treaty and the new conservative government. Radicals formed a "commune". The army took control of the radicals and crushed all opposition. Poisoned French politics
Theory of relativity. New physics contributed to the uncertainties of the postwar world.
Created rules for the divvying up of Africa amongst the European powers. Declared the Congo to be the "Congo Free State."
Cossacks fired upon a peaceful crowd of workers in St. Petersburg. This became known as a "Bloody Sunday" massacre. Led to Nicholas II approving the election of a Russian parliament, Duma.
Led to civil war and the creation of a communist state.
Ended Bolshevik Russia's act in WWI. Negotiated by Vladimir Lenin due to his realization that the war could no longer be won.
Created the League of Nations to settle disputes without resorting to war. Forced Germany to sign a war-guilt clause. Dissolved the dual monarchy, Austria-Hungary, into the separate states of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.
Plan to reestablish a sound German currency and limit reparation payments. Provided a series of American loans to Germany.
Created an agreement between France and Germany to regard mutual frontiers. Was the beginning of a brief period of reduced tensions between the European powers.
Designed to transform the Soviet Unions economic structure.
Outlawed war as an use of national policy
Economic depression after a major fall in stock prices.
Nazis passed laws forbidding Jews to hold public office. The Nuremberg Laws soon followed.
Start of the rule of Nazis based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism.
Mussolini ordered an invasion of Ethiopia to test the League of Nations' system of security.
Stripped Jews of all rights and citizenship.
Nationalist forces rebelled against the Republic. Hitler and Mussolini sent men to support the Nationalists.
Surrendered the Sudetenland to Adolf Hitler
Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. All because of a 10 year nonaggression pact.
His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the days when the British Commonwealth stood alone in its active war against the Nazis.
Hitler and Joseph Stalin promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in a war. Divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet lands.
Largest seaborne invasion in history. German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were at least 10,000.
Germany's military situation was on the verge of total collapse. To the Nazi leadership, it was clear that the battle of Berlin would be the final battle of the war in Europe due to Germany becoming more weak.
Tension after World War II between the Soviet Union and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Declared that the United States would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugations by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
Program made to provide economic aid for the promotion of a recovery for Europe, while preventing the spread of Soviet beliefs.
Established NATO to coordinate the defense of its members. Demanded to move its headquarters from Paris to brussels due to Charles de Gaulle withdrawing French forces from the american controlled , NATO.
Khrushchev came into power. He openly denounced Stalin's policies.
Eliminated trade barriers, and emerged as the driving force behind economoc integration.
Sputnik was an artificial satellite. It was feared the U.S would launch a satellite before the Soviet Union.
Negotiations to limit testing of nuclear weapons. Recognize East Germany.
Close to a nuclear war
Introduced Glasnot, Perestroika, and Demokratizatsiya.
Ended the symbol of Communist oppression, and represented unity. Marked the end of the Cold War.
Created the European Union, also established a central bank for the European Union.
Created a universal system of currency in Europe