AP Euro

Events

Renaissance starts

1450

Changed the way people saw life and Christianity

English Civil War Starts

1450

Many deaths and changed the English system

Fall of Constantinople

1453

Destroyed the Roman Empire

The Printing Press is invented

1455

This makes books like the Bible to be able to spread fast, spreading Christianity

Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand

1469

Would later unify Spain

Lorenzo De Medici was born

1469

Was basically a head ruler of Italy by his power and wealth

Michelangelo was born

1475

He created art that fascinated all of Italy

Martin Luther is born

1483

Origin of Slave Trade

1490

Christopher Columbus voyages to the New World

1492

Changes where new trade can happen between the Americas and Europeans

French invasion of Italy

1494

Changed the alliances between empires

Spanish Unification

1502

Would be a powerhouse

King Henry VIII is born

1509

Would change the way England is ran, and also a reformation that will take place

John Calvin is born

1509

Would raise new ideas on Lutherism, and makes a new ideology of Calvanism

Leo X becomes pope

1513

Changed the way the Church ran

The Prince

1513

Book by Machiavelli that changed the way politics were ran

Charles V is born

1519

Was enemies with Luther

Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs

1519

Increased goods that would go to Spain

First Habsburg-Valois War

1521 - 1525

First of many wars that would change the Holy Roman Empire

Cortez conquered the Aztecs

1521

This gave Spain good materials from South America

The Peasants War

1524

Raided Luther's home and made him believe new things

Anabaptist reformation

1532

Changed the way many people saw religion

Copernicus Heliocentric

1543

Changed the ways people looked at science

End of 100 years war

1543

Council of Trent

1545

Pope Paul trying to resolve the conflicts

Martin Luther dies

1546

End of a big era

Reign of Mary I

1553

This brought Catholicism into England, but was changed with her daughter, Elizabeth

Peace of Habsburg

1555

Gave peace between the countries

Elizabeth I becomes queen

1558

Changes the role of women and education in England

Francis Bacon ideas

1561

Tried to increase scientific ideas

French War of Religion

1562 - 1598

Calvinist that went against Lutherans

Michelangelo dies

1564

End of an artist era

Witchcraft Craze

1580

This was because of their gender roles

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

1588

This gave England Power and made Elizabeth popular

Assassination of Henry III

1589

Destroyed French invasions of Calvinism

Edict of Nantes

1598

Showed that Catholicism is the official religion of France

British East Indian Company

1600

This will get many goods to Britain, making them powerful

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Changed the impact on Religion

William the Great Elector reign

1640

Tried to expand Prussia so it can be a powerhouse like France

Portugal Rebellion against Spain

1640

Rebelled to become independent from their influence

Louis XIV's absolute reign begins

1643

Changed the way the country was ran, with only 1 leader who makes every decision

Overtaking the capital of Beijing

1644

It overthrew the Ming dynasty

Charles I executed in England

1649

It ends monarchy in England and made Divine Right more popular

Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan

1651

Thought that people were going to destroy each other

England Seize New Netherlands

1664

Changed the economic and political understandings

Reign of Peter the Great

1689

Tried to Westernize Russia

Bank of England founded

1694

This kept the economy of England stable

Renaissance ends

1700

End of the era of religion and art

Enlightenment starts

1700

Changed the way people saw the world with science

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Louis XIV invaded Spain to gain land

Newton laws of Motion

1705

increased science ideas and lowered religious ideas

The United Kingdom

1707

When Britain and Scotland became United

Peace of Utrecht

1713

This ended the Spanish Succession and stopped France from getting land

Voltaire Philosophic Letters on the English

1733

He expressed how he loved the English Life

Fredrick the Great of Prussia ruling

1740

Was a strong, enlightened absolute leader who expanded the land of Prussia into Austria

Jacques-Louis David and art

1748

Was important to the popular art style of Neoclassicism

Agriculture Revolution

1750

Made the economics of the country increase by its methods

Industrial Revolution Begins

1750

The era of industrial innovations begin

Mozart

1756

Had the most popular music during the time

The Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

When Austria made its diplomatic revolution, it created a worldwide war between Austrians and Europeans

Catherine the Great of Russia rule

1762

Enlightened Absolute leader that helped Russia expand

Romanticism uprising

1762

This ideology will impact the beliefs of many people in the 19th Century

Treaty of Paris

1763

Ended the Seven Years War

Steam Engine by James Watt

1765

This was able to power steam boats, which were the fastest at the time

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Gave America independence from Britain, and this would affect France to begin its own revolution

Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

1776

Talked about how labor should be used to increase the economic standpoint

Joseph II’s rule

1780

Another Enlightened Absolutist that would transform Austria into an empire

Richard Arkwright and the water frame

1780

Produced Cotton faster than ever before

Diderot and The Encyclopedia

1780

He tried to change the universal way of thinking

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Would reform France into a non enlightened absolute country, after the reign of Louis XVI

Wollenstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

Changed Women's rights and mens ideas on women

Assassination of Louis XVI

1793

This gave people hope that they can fully change the policies of France

Enlightenment Ends

1800

End of an era of Scientific Thinking

Napoleons becomes emperor

1804

Napoleon believed he can make France the biggest empire in the world, he lost in Russia and was exciled

Concert of Europe

1815

Destroyed Napoleonic ideas through the countries he successfully invaded

Rise of Nationalism

1820

They believe that they have to do anything for their country or upcoming country

Rise of Liberalism

1820

Made people believe in increasing freedom among men

Socialism

1820

Social Views were focused on the economics of social people

Railroad invention

1820

Was the fastest way of transportation, which increased trade

Greek Revolution

1821 - 1832

The Greeks tried to break off of the Ottoman Empire, in the 1830s, they became independent

Napoleons Death

1821

Ended the reign of the empire that was very large in size, going through Prussia, Italy, Spain, Austria, and a little bit of Russia

Another French Revolution

1830 - 1850

The people wanted to overthrow the king Charles X

Great Reform Bill

1832

This brought even more trade, due to new money being invented

Victorian Era

1837 - 1901

Made Britain grow in economic and political power, which was ruled by Victoria

Irish Potato Famine

1845

This starved many Irish, and made them move to countries like America and Britain

Repeal of Corn Laws

1846

The British did not give the Irish any food to help the Famine

Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx

1848

Marx believed the communism, working class supportive, was needed to keep a country stable

Revolutions of 1848

1848

Revolts that include Italy, Prussia, Hungary, and Belgium

Great Exhibition

1851

A palace made of glass and steel, which showed off the greatness of Britain's power

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

This was for Napoleon III to see who really gets the most profit from the Ottomans against the Russians

Charles Darwin Theory of Natural Selection

1859

Believed that the strongest were only able to survive, this was implemented with racism and believed in superior races

Unification of Italy

1861

Cavour united Italy after defeating Piedmont, who also wanted Italy

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

Abraham Lincoln and the North went to war with the South, due to their perspective about slaves

Austria, the dual monarch

1867

Austria became an empire, by becoming a dual monarch with Hungary

New Industrial Leader

1870

Germany Replaced Britain as the Industrial Leader

Franco - Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Bismark knew he had to get Paris to get independence

Rise in Impressionism

1870

A type of Art that tried to paint the painters impression

Unification of Germany

1871

Otto van Bismark, after defeating the French, proclaimed Prussia as a country

Alliances between Germany, Austria, and Italy

1882

They allied to support existing political order

Imperialism

1885

Many countries made colonies in Africa to get all the goods like rubber and oil back to their country

Hitler is born

1889

The man was born in Austria

Irish Prime Minister Gladstone

1893

Gladstone became the Prime Minister, after getting control of Britain, was then defeated

Japan invades China

1894

They needed to get land from China, to make sure they can stay economically fit

End of Industrial era

1900

Not many new ideas and solutions were made, which ended the era

Work of Albert Einstein

1905

Einstein convinced many people of his ideas, and became very popular

Racial Darwinism

1907

This made the Germans believe that they were the biggest and most superior race in the world

The Church Condemning Modernism

1907

The Catholic Church was going down in popularity

Population growth in 1910 in Europe

1910

The amount of people rises to 460 million

Women Rights

1913

Emily Davison threw herself in front of a horsed died, and her shirt said Women's rights

German Troops invades Belgium

1914

This made Britain go to war against Germany

Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand

1914

This led to World War I

World War I

1914 - 1918

War between Germany and Austria against Britain, France, and Russia

Age of War starts

1914

This was a start of 3 huge wars that impacted millions upon millions

Russia mobilizes

Approx. July 29 1914

Airplanes

1915

This made the changed the course of the war on how many were killed

Bolshevik Revolutions in Russia

1917

This started the Civil War in Russia

Russian Civil War

1918 - 1920

This kept Russia out of the end of the war

Peace of Versailles

1919

This ended the War and gave Germany less power

Fascist Italy

1921

This changed the way the government was led and would make Italy an ally with Germany in the Next War

Totalitarianism

1922

This made countries believe that government can help for absolute power

Mussolini and Fascist Italy

1923

Mussolini became Prime Minister of Italy, he used propaganda in his work, since he was a newspaper guy before

The Hopeful Years

1924

This was a good time in the European countries that had peace

First Labour Party Government in Britain

1924

This changed the government system dramatically, with the labour party being Left Wing system

The Great Depression

1929 - 1939

A time where many people were unemployed because of the stock market crash and the war

Stalin becomes Dictator

1929

This was a turning point for the Russians and becoming a communist state

Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

1933

This made the Nazi party the official party of Germany

The Holocaust

1933 - 1945

This was a time where Jews were mistreated, and during the war, exterminated with 6 million deaths

Soviet Union invades Poland

1939

This was to try to keep Germany away from Russia

Germany invades Poland

1939

This made Germany a threat to many Eastern European countries

World War II

1939 - 1945

The axis power try to spread Nazi Germany because of food and racial superiority

Germany invades Russia

1941

This was necessary for Hitler to gain land of Poland and Yugoslavia, but he lost and had to retreat

Germany surrenders

1945

When Hitler killed himself, there was nothing to do but surrender to the allied power

Atomic Bomb Dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima

1945

This made Japan surrender and showed America that they are now one of the main dominant powers in the world

Yalta Conference

1945

This conference between Britain, the us, and the Soviet Union talk on what to do to Germany for this uprising

The Cold War

1947 - 1991

The US and The Soviet Union had tensions with nuclear weapons and the spread of Communism

NATO founded

1949

This alliances Western Europe with America

European Coal and Steel Community Formed

1951

This was to support countries destroyed by war and to stop of any upcoming war

Death of Stalin

1953

This made people believe that communism would come to an end and there wouldn't be a war with the Soviets

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

The US had to destroy communism in Vietnam, being close to main powers like China and Japan

Berlin Wall erected

1961

This was to keep Eastern Germans to spread communist ideas into Western Europe

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Fidel Castro got a hold of Missiles in Cuba, and threatened the United States, this was bad for the US because it showed The USSR got a country close to them

Mr. Power is born

1973

This is a turning point because around 100 students a year will have stress in his class in AP European History

Thatcher elected Prime Minister in England

1979

This stopped England from becoming a socialist based country

Reunification of Germany

1990

This brought down the Berlin wall and people could move to west Berlin and West Germany

End of War Era

1991

This ended all the big wars that occurred and most of the countries of the wars have recovered

End of Cold War

1991

Ended the tension between Russia and The US

The 9/11 Attack

2001

Grew greater tension between terrorist and the US

Trump bombs Syria

2017

This is a turning point because the makes syria's ally Russia furious at the US