The First successful test of the Atomic Bomb, part of the Manhattan Project, took place in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Robert J. Oppenheimer directed the project at its facility in New Mexico and was one of the first people to watch the bomb detonate. The bomb was originally intended for use on the Germans, but was then used as a threat to the Japanese. When the Japanese did not surrender, it was used. Additionally, President Truman took a firmer stance against Stalin when discussing post war Europe, and soon afterwards, in 1949, the Soviet Union had developed their own atomic bomb, and the Cold War began.