European History Chapters 15-19

Timeline comparing society and arts in Europe.

Events

Baroque period

1600 - 1750

The Baroque period was spurred by the revitalization of Rome and the Catholic Church. The papacy encouraged emotional and exuberant art. Baroque arts spread throughout Europe. Peter Paul Rubens was an exceptional baroque painter and Johann Sebastian Bach a composer and musician.

Illegitimacy explosion

1750 - 1850

During this time, social controls loosened greatly, especially in western Europe. This lead to a huge rise in illegitimacy rates.

Germany

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

This war was very destructive for Germany's (Holy Roman Empire) society. An estimated one-third of the population was killed and the economy was destroyed because of looting and burning. German society was also affected by the Thirty Years' War because the Peace of Westphalia recognized all the existing independent states and prevented unification for Germany.

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Frederick William I established absolutism in Prussia. Prussian civil society became rigid and highly disciplined. He also established lifelong conscription and didn't support the development of the arts.

German schools

1717

Elementary school attendance is made mandatory in Germany.

German guilds

1760

German guilds were the most powerful in Europe around this time.

England

English society

Approx. 1650

The lower middle class of England was made primarily of Puritans. Thomas Hobbes' idea of society was not popular at this time.

English system

1700

The putting-out system was big in England around this time. It was a system where the merchant loaned raw materials to a rural worker to be processed and then returned to the merchant to be sold.

Slaves in England

1780

British people start movement to abolish slave trade.

Slaves in England

1807

British parliament abolished slave trade in Britain.

France

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV was an enthusiastic patron of the arts in France. French classicist writing thrived and Louis XIV loved the theatre and plays. He also supported the visual arts and sculpting.

Charity schools

Approx. 1660

Charity schools are opened in France for poor children.

Orphanages

Approx. 1680

France has orphanages starting around this time.

French culture

1682

During this period of time, French culture had international prestige. French became the language of "polite society" and replaced Latin as the language of scholarship.

French guilds

1760

Guilds provided France with money from taxes but non-guilds also flourish in the countryside.

French guilds

1776

Law issued to abolish French guilds.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution brought big changes to French society as people were very unhappy and took action. Peasants were especially angry as there was a poor harvest and food was very scarce. The middle class of France was divided during the Revolution. The poor called themselves the sans-culottes.

Consumerism

Approx. 1790

Rise in consumerism in France, specifically Paris, saw growth in people's wardrobes as they became more fashionable.

Italy

Baroque period starts

Approx. 1600

The Baroque period started in Italy (Rome) around this time as the Church fuelled the movement.

Spain

Spanish society

1620

During this time, the Spanish middle class was very small. Many Muslims were expelled from Spain, which meant that many skilled workers were gone. There was low agricultural productivity.

Orphanages

Approx. 1680

Spain has orphanages starting around this time.

Spanish colony

1792

A practical achievement of reformers was the opening of mining schools in Spanish colonies.

Netherlands

Dutch society

Approx. 1680

Dutch society around this time had a high standard of living. There was a lot of religious toleration, which attracted foreign investment. All classes in society ate well and food riots were rare. Salaries were also high.