The Baroque period was spurred by the revitalization of Rome and the Catholic Church. The papacy encouraged emotional and exuberant art. Baroque arts spread throughout Europe. Peter Paul Rubens was an exceptional baroque painter and Johann Sebastian Bach a composer and musician.
1750 - 1850
During this time, social controls loosened greatly, especially in western Europe. This lead to a huge rise in illegitimacy rates.
Thirty Years' War
1618 - 1648
This war was very destructive for Germany's (Holy Roman Empire) society. An estimated one-third of the population was killed and the economy was destroyed because of looting and burning. German society was also affected by the Thirty Years' War because the Peace of Westphalia recognized all the existing independent states and prevented unification for Germany.
Frederick William I
1713 - 1740
Frederick William I established absolutism in Prussia. Prussian civil society became rigid and highly disciplined. He also established lifelong conscription and didn't support the development of the arts.
Elementary school attendance is made mandatory in Germany.
German guilds were the most powerful in Europe around this time.
The lower middle class of England was made primarily of Puritans. Thomas Hobbes' idea of society was not popular at this time.
The putting-out system was big in England around this time. It was a system where the merchant loaned raw materials to a rural worker to be processed and then returned to the merchant to be sold.
Slaves in England
British people start movement to abolish slave trade.
Slaves in England
British parliament abolished slave trade in Britain.
1643 - 1715
Louis XIV was an enthusiastic patron of the arts in France. French classicist writing thrived and Louis XIV loved the theatre and plays. He also supported the visual arts and sculpting.
Charity schools are opened in France for poor children.
France has orphanages starting around this time.
During this period of time, French culture had international prestige. French became the language of "polite society" and replaced Latin as the language of scholarship.
Guilds provided France with money from taxes but non-guilds also flourish in the countryside.
Law issued to abolish French guilds.
1789 - 1799
The French Revolution brought big changes to French society as people were very unhappy and took action. Peasants were especially angry as there was a poor harvest and food was very scarce. The middle class of France was divided during the Revolution. The poor called themselves the sans-culottes.
Rise in consumerism in France, specifically Paris, saw growth in people's wardrobes as they became more fashionable.
Baroque period starts
The Baroque period started in Italy (Rome) around this time as the Church fuelled the movement.
During this time, the Spanish middle class was very small. Many Muslims were expelled from Spain, which meant that many skilled workers were gone. There was low agricultural productivity.
Spain has orphanages starting around this time.
A practical achievement of reformers was the opening of mining schools in Spanish colonies.
Dutch society around this time had a high standard of living. There was a lot of religious toleration, which attracted foreign investment. All classes in society ate well and food riots were rare. Salaries were also high.