Church History

By Sydney Anderson

Events

Jesus' Resurrection

33 AD

Jesus is raised from the dead. The tomb is found empty by Mary Magdalene and Jesus appears to her.

Jesus' Ascension

33 AD

Jesus ascends into Heaven, bidding the Disciples and Apostles to do His work. He wants them to spread Catholicism to all the countries.

Pentecost

33 AD

The Apostles are filled with the Holy Spirit and leave to preach in all nations.

Edict of Milan

313

Emperor Constantine proclaims that Christianity is legal and the official religion of the Roman Empire.

The Great Schism

1054

The Great Schism occurred when the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches split.

The Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Started by Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformation was when the Protestants split from the Catholic Church. The term Christianity came to include Protestants and Catholics.

Papacy of Pope Francis

March 13, 2013 - Present

Pope Francis has already done some amazing things as his time as Pope. He is the first non-European Pope in 1,300 years! He also strives for equality for women and people of other religions. He urges people to protect the environment and care for the poor.

Church Councils

Council of Nicaea

325

The Council of Nicaea was called by Emperor Constantine. It declared that the teachings of Arius of Alexandria (that Jesus Christ was not divine) was a heresy. The Nicene Creed was created.

Council of Constantinople

381

The Council of Constantinople was called by Emperor Theodosius. This Council declared that the Holy Spirit was equal with the Father and the Son.

Council of Ephesus

431

The Council of Ephesus was called by Emperor Theodosius II. It condemned the teachings of Nestorianism. They determined that Nestorianism overemphasized the human nature of Jesus. They decreed that Jesus was one person and that the Virgin Mary is "Mother of God". It also condemned Pelagianism, which says that humanity is basically good and that original sin does not exist.

Council of Chalcedon

451

The Council of Chalcedon was called by Emperor Marcian. It approved the Nicene Creed and said that Christ had two natures, not just one.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was called by Pope Paul III, in reaction to the growing Protestant movement. Tradition was accepted as a source of faith, the number of sacraments (seven) became fixed, and declared the Luther's doctrine of justification (which stated that faith alone was needed) was heresy.

First Vatican Council

1869 - 1870

The First Vatican Council was called by Pope Pius IX to deal with rationalism, liberalism and materialism. They also ruled that the pope is infallible.

Second Vatican Council

1962 - 1965

The Second Vatican Council was called by Pope John XXIII to reform the Church to the modern needs of its people. The Mass is now celebrated in the language of the region instead of in Latin and changed many of its old traditions, such as the wearing of doilies on the head.

Saints and Doctors of the Church

Saint Brigid of Kildare

475 - 525

Saint Brigid of Kildare started the Brigidine order. She founded many monasteries and preached all around Ireland. She performed many miracles and is the patron saint of Ireland, newborns, milkmaids, cows and nuns.

Saint Hildegard of Bingen

1098 - 1179

Saint Hildegard is a Doctor of the Church who wrote three books on theology, studied medicine, wrote many songs, and was actively advising many powerful people. She also had many visions and interpreted them in her books.

Saint Thomas Aquinas

1226 - 1274

Saint Thomas Aquinas started his education at the age of 5, showing great interest in great philosophical teachers such as Aristotle and Averroes. He then learned about the Dominican Order and decided to join. He wrote many books important to Catholic teachings. One of these, and the most well known, is the Summa. He is considered one of the most influential Saints.

St. Catherine of Siena

1347 - 1380

Saint Catherine of Siena lived in Italy. She had a vision of marrying Jesus when she was 21 years old, and immediately went into the public to help the needy. She wrote over 400 letters, founded a monastery, dictated one of her visions, known as The Dialogue, and wrote many prayers. She is a Doctor of the Church.

Saint Kateri Tekakwitha

1657 - 1680

Saint Kateri was the first Native American Saint. She was a Mohawk Indian and contracted small pox when she was four years old. After losing her family to the disease, she was raised by her uncle. She refused to marry, became Catholic at age 19, and was known to be very devout towards her faith.

St. Elizabeth Ann Seton

August 28, 1774 - January 4, 1821

St. Elizabeth Ann Seton is the first American-born Saint. She founded many Catholic schools and helped kick start the Catholic school system. She was also a widow, a nun and a mother.

The Papacy of Saint Pope John Paul II the Great

October 16, 1978 - April 2, 2005

Saint Pope John Paul II the Great was the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. He was a well-traveled Pope, logging over 100 trips abroad. He also survived an assassination attempt and beatified/canonized a record amount of saints.

Canonization of Hildegard of Bingen

May 10, 2012

After many years, Hildegard was finally declared a Saint and a Doctor of the Church by Pope Benedict XIV. She was declared this using the rule of equivalent canonization, which means that the Pope omits the second miracle, declaring that person a Saint, and in this case, a Doctor of the Church.