The first ecumenical council of the Church, the Council of Nicaea focused on Jesus' Incarnation. A heretic named Arius was teaching people that Jesus wasn't fully divine. People were confused about this and other teachings, so the Council of Nicaea was held. One of the results of this council is the Nicene Creed. It is a list of Catholic beliefs so people wouldn't be so confused, but will be officially applied later on.
The second council of the Church, the Council of Constantinople, was called to settle some remaining problems from the Council of Nicaea and also some new ones. This council disproved the teachings of Arianism, clarified the ways that the Trinity was described, and sharpened the differences of the Eastern and Western branches of the Church.
One of the Archbishops named Nestorius thought that Jesus' natures were separate and Mary wasn't the Mother of God. One man challenged his ideas, so Nestorius wanted a council to settle the dispute. He lost, and was removed from his position.
This council condemned Monophysitism, which said that Jesus has only one nature which is a combination of His divine and human natures.
This council's main purpose was to condemn and refute the beliefs of the Protestant churches due to the Protestant Reformation.
The council was held to refute various contemporary ideas associated with the rise of liberalism and materialism. It also clarified that the Pope can never be wrong when talking about dogma.
The main point of Vatican II was spiritual renewal for the Church. Catholics around the world were able to come together in faith.
St. Jerome was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian. His feast day is September 30.
St. Brigid was a milkmaid in Ireland. Her feast day is February 1.
St. Thomas Aquinas was a philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. He made many books about the Holy Spirit. His feast day is January 28.
St. Catherine was a mystic and tertiary nun. She received the stigmata and a ring from God, both only visible to herself. Her feast day is April 29.
St. Elizabeth Ann Seton is the first saint that was born in the US to be canonized. She was a teacher and lived in New York. Her feast day is January 4.
St. Katherine Drexel was a rich heiress from Pennsylvania, but used her money on the less fortunate. Her feast day is March 3.
Some people know St. Therese as the Little Flower. Her feast day is October 3.
This happened 40 days after the Resurrection.
Three days after he dies, Jesus rose from the dead. Mary Magdalene was the first to see Jesus after he resurrected.
This is when the Holy Spirit descended upon the disciples in the room in the form of tongues of flame. This is technically the birthday of the Church, because it gave the people courage to evangelize.
The Edict of Milan is the agreement between two emperors that made Christianity legal in the Roman empire.
Also known as the East-West Schism, was the split in the Catholic Church that resulted in Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Protestant Reformation took place when Martin Luther was unhappy with the Church, its actions, and its teachings, so he decided to break away. Martin Luther formed his own church, the Lutheran church. This led to many other people also breaking away and starting their own churches.
Pope John Paul II was born in Poland. He was the first non-Italian Pope in over 400 years. He was shot twice, and forgave his attacker. He spoke out against the suffering in the world and set and example for many Catholics.
Pope Francis is the first pope to come from the Americas. His given name is Jorge Mario Bergoglio, and he was born in Argentina.