Church History

Saints and Doctors of The Church

Life of St. Augustine

November 13, 354 AD - August 28, 430 AD

Augustine had an important conversion to God. His former life before conversion included parties and entertainment. His mother, St. Monica, had prayed for her son, and eventually he had a miraculous conversion. In his life after his conversion, he was baptized, became a priest, became a bishop, and had many Catholic writings. He was canonized by popular acclaim, and became a doctor of the church in 1298. His feast day is August 28.

Life of St. Brigid of Kildare

Approx. 450 AD - Feb. 1, 523 AD

St. Brigid was born in Ireland, her mother a slave and her father a cheifton. She spent her life giving all she had to the poor, and once even gave her father's sword away. She was pre-congregational. Her feast day is February 1st.

Life of St. Thomas Aquinas

Approx. 1225 AD - March 7, 1274

St. Thomas Aquinas was born in Roccasecca Italy. He was an Italian philosopher and a priest. He combined the ideas of theology and theology. He wrote the Summa Theologica. He was canonized in 1323 by Pope John XXII in 1323. He was proclaimed a doctor of the church in 1567 by Pope Pius V

Life of St. Teresa of Avila

March 28, 1515 - October 4, 1582

She was born in Avila, Spain. She was a mystic, nun, and also wrote many books, people refer to as spiritual classics. She also created the Carmelite Reform. She was canonized in 1622. She was the first women to be a doctor of the church.

Life of Saint Catherine Laboure

May 2, 1806 - December 31, 1836

Catherine (Zoe) Laboure was born in France. She was a member of the Daughters of Charity. Also, she had a vision from St. Vincent, and was appeared to by Mary three times. Mary instructed her to make the Miraculous Medals, which she did successfully. No one knew it was she who made the medals until Mary told her to tell others. She also died in France and has an incorruptible body.

Life of St. John Nuemann

March 28, 1811 - January 5, 1860

He was an American Immigrant from Europe. He was a priest, and bishop of Philadelphia. Also, he was the founder of the U.S. diocesan Catholic school system. He was a missionary. He was canonized in 1977.

Life of St. Katherine Drexel

November 26, 1858 - March 3, 1955

Born in 1858 in US. She was a wealthy heiress from Philadelphia. However, she gave away all her money to care for native Americans and African-Americans. She was canonized in 2000. Her feast day is March third.

Canonization of St. Catherine Laboure

July 27, 1947

She was canonized by Pope Pius XII on July 27, 1947. However, she was beatified by Pope Pius XI on May 28, 1933. Her feast day is November 28.

Councils

Council of Nicaea

325 AD

Held in Nicaea, which is in Present day Turkey. 318 Bishops attended. This council was about the Nicene Creed. This council also refused the teachings of Arianism. Overall, this council just stated the teachings of the church, such as Jesus is one being with the Father, and is a divine person of the Trinity.

Council of Constantinople

381 AD

Held in Constantinople, which is current day Istanbul, Turkey. This council happened very shortly after the previous ones. It rejected the teachings of Macedonians. It said that the Holy Spirit is also a part of the Trinity.

Council of Ephesus

431 AD

This council which was also in Turkey, was the first council about Mary. This council stated that Jesus has two natures, and is fully human and divine. It also said that Mary is truly the mother of God.

Council of Chalcedon

451 AD

Also held in Turkey. This council rejected the teachings of Monophysysitism. These teachings say that Jesus only has one nature, which is incorrect because he is fully human and fully divine.

Council of Trent

1545 AD - 1563 AD

There were thirty Bishops at the Council of Trent. They determined major doctrines, why we need both scripture and tradition, grace, the sacraments, the hierarchy of the church, priesthood, and the sacrificial character in the Mass. This council started the counter-reformation.

First Vatican Council

1869 AD - 1870 AD

This council gave the Pope more authority. It also started a spiritual renewal for the Church. Catholicism was given a world face.

Second Vatican Council

October 11, 1962 AD - 1965 AD

Pope John Paul XXIII started the second Vatican Council. The main purpose of this council was an updating. The biggest change was in the Area of the liturgy.

Important Events

Pentecost

Approx. 33 AD

Pentecost was 50 days after Jesus rose (Easter). The Holy Spirit came down upon the apostles in a rush of wind, and gave them the ability to speak in different tongues. This is the day that many new Church communities were formed. It is also called the Birthday of the Church.

Jesus' Resurrection and Assencion

33 AD

Jesus rose from the dead on Easter Sunday. The first person to see him was Mary Magdalene. He ascended into Heaven at the right hand of the Father 40 days after this.

Edict of Milan

313 AD

At first Rome, declared War on Christianity. Many Christians were persecuted. Constantine had a vision from God while in a battle that sparked his personal conversion and Rome's conversion. The Edict of Milan officially stated that Christianity was tolerated in the Roman Empire. Emporer of Rome, Constantine passed the edict and was agreed by Licinius.

Great Schism

1054

This event is also known as the East-West Schism. It divided the Church into the Western Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox. The main cause of the schism was the debate over the pope's authority.

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

A major European Movement reforming some of the beliefs of Catholic Church. Martin Luther posted 95 theses on a Church door. These theses challenged some beliefs anf doctrines of the church. This event weakened the unity of the Christian Church.

Papacy of Saint Pope John Paul II the Great

1978 - 2005

Elected Pope after Pope John Paul I was Pope for only 31 days. He traveled and preached the world about his messages on religious freedoms. During his papacy he rewrote many important Church texts. He encourages the use of science and the religious truth; however he warned many that science could impair the importance of human dignity. He died in April of 2005 due to septic shock.

Papacy of Pope Francis

March 13, 2013 - Present

He was the succesor of Pope Benedict XVI. Pope Francis was elected Pope in 2013. He was born in Argentina. He announced a Year of Mercy on March 13, 2015. Also, he visited the US in 2016.