Church History

Councils

Council of Nicea

325

Held in Turkey during the 300s, this council issued the Nicene Creed and reaffirmed Jesus is a divine Person of the Trinity.

Council of Constantinople

381

This council was held in modern day Istanbul and reaffirmed the Holy Spirit's divinity.

Council of Ephesus

431

Also held in Turkey, this council created the Marian dogma "Mother of God", explained that Jesus is one divine Person with both a human and divine natures, and said we need the grace of God to reach perfection.

Council of Chalcedon

451

At this Turkish council the Church further clarified Jesus has both a human and a divine nature, not one nature which is a mixture of the two.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The council of Trent was held in northern Italy in hopes of reforming the problems with the Church which lead to the Reformation. The council clarifies or reinforced several teachings, including the importance of both Scripture and tradition, good works aided by grace, the sacraments, the hierarchical Church, the priesthood, transubstantiation, the Mass's sacrificial character, and papal supremacy. In addition, seminaries were reformed.

First Vatican Council

1869 - 1870

The first Vatican Council reaffirmed papal authority by introducing the doctrine of papal infallibility. The council had the ultimate effect of spiritual renewal on a large scale and made Catholicism a global power.

Second Vatican Council

1962 - 1965

The second Vatican Council is the most recent council in Church history. It encourage more favorable relationships with other religions and modern movements, emphasized the dignity of the human person, and allowed Mass to be said in vernacular languages instead of Latin.

Life of Canonized Saints

St. Brigid of Kildare's Life

450 - 525

St. Brigid was Irish saint born in 450 AD. She lived a holy life in which legend says she performed several miracles including stories involving her cloak and her cross. Today, she is remembered as the patroness of Ireland and for founding several monasteries. Since St. Brigid was a precongregational saint, St. Brigid has no canonization date.

Life of St. Hildegard of Bingen

September 16, 1098 - September 17, 1179

St. Hildegard is mystic and Doctor of the Church highly regarded by Pope Benedict the XVI, though she was not without controversy in her day. Her feastday is on September 17.

Life of St. Thomas Aquinas

1226 - 1274

St. Thomas Aquinas was a prolific write whose writings are valuable, "in any age of the Church". His most important work was Summa Theologica, a "summary" of the faith, which is one of the most important writings on Catholicism of all time. He is remembered today as one of the greatest theologians to have ever lived.

Canonization of St. Thomas Aquinas

1323

It was during this year that St. Thomas Aquinas became known as a canonized saint.

St. Catherine of Siena's Life

March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380

St. Catherine of Siena was an Italian women and mystic. She was involved in Church politics and an authoress, despite not knowing how to write a majority of her life. She is honored as a Doctor of the Church and one of Italy's patrons.

St. Catherine of Siena's Canonization

June 29, 1461

St. Catherine of Siena was canonized on this day. She was never beautified despite being a canonized saint because beautification was not created until after her canonization.

Sister Rose Philippine Duchesne

1769 - 1852

Born in Europe in 1769, Sister Rose Philippine Duchesne immigrated to the Americas and spent her life working with Native Americans in Missouri and the Louisiana Territory. Known as the, "Woman who always prays", she is remembered an American saint and her feastday is November 18th.

Bishop John Neumann's Life

1811 - 1860

Though he was born in Europe, St. John Neumann eventually became an American saint and the Bishop of Philadelphia. He was involved with the founding of the US Diocesan Catholic School System and his feastday is January 5th.

Bishop John Neumann's Canonization

1977

St. John Neumann became a canonized American saint during the year 1977.

Canonization of Sister Rose Philippine Duchesne

1988

St. Rose Philippine Duchesne became a canonized saint during the year 1988.

Canonization of St. Hildegard of Bingen

2012

Hundreds of years after she died, St. Hildegard of Bingen was canonized in 2012.

Events

Jesus' Ressurrection

Approx. March 1, 33 AD

Jesus rises from the dead.

Jesus' Asecension

April 1, 33 AD

Forty days after his resurrection, Jesus ascends into Heaven.

Pentecost

July 1, 33 AD

The Holy Spirit is sent to Apostles and gives them the courage to evangelize. Pentecost is celebrated as the Church's birth.

Edit of Milan

313

Emperor Constantine writes a declaration after around three hundred years of persecution that Christianity is not only legal, but the preferred religion of the Roman Empire.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The Eastern Orthodox Church splits off from the Catholic Church.

Protestant Reformation

October 31, 1517 - 1648

After Martin Luther publishes the "95 Theses" he is excommunicated from the Catholic Church and begins Protestantism. The movement sweeps over Europe, and consequently, the world.

Papacy of St. Pope John Paul II the Great

Oct. 16, 1978 - April 2, 2005

St. Pope John Paul II the Great is the human leader of the Holy Catholic Church during this time.

Papacy of Pope Francis

March 13, 2013 - Present

After Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, Jorge Mario Bergoglio is instituted as the next Pope and takes on the name of Francis for his papacy. Pope Francis is the current pope.