Activity 1: Alaska Timeline

Education

John Veniaminov

1823

John Veniaminov (Archbishop (now Saint) Innocent (1797-1879)) accepts an invitation to work in Sitka, Alaska. 1823-1868 he worked in Alaska, opened a bilingual school in which both Aleut and Russian were taught. Believed we should work together and preserve the Native way. Translated and published several books in Aleut and composed some original works in the language.

First mission school for Eskimos founded

1843

Many church based schools are established throughout Alaska

1867

First school in Alaska established at Three Saints Bay, Kodiak Island

1874

Sheldon Jackson

1877

(1834-1909) An American clergyman arrives in Alaska and stays until 1884. This missionary founded many schools but had a very different approach than his Russian predecessor. He believed everyone should be converted to Christianity, learn English and forget the Native ways.

Use of English in Indian schools

1887

Federal Bureau of Education took over most mission schools

1894

Local school board established in Nome

1902

First school opens in Fairbanks

1904

Nelson Act establishes school for white children

1905

First teachers’ conference held in Juneau

1908

Mount Edgecumbe High School was founded in Sitka

1947

The Tundra Times is established

1962

The Tundra Times is established, giving a voice to the issues and views of Alaska Natives

Advisory School Boards established

1967

Kindergarten program initiated

1968

Mt. Edgecumbe-Wrangell Parent school Board established

1971

Molly Hootch Case

1972

Along with others, Molly Hootch is suing the state for failing to provide village high schools

Case of Tobluk v. Lind

1976

Bilingual Conference in Anchorage

1981

Stephen E. Cotton re-caps Molly Hootch Case

1984

Anchorage School District begins work on the Common Core standards

2008

Anchorage adopts Common Core State Standards

2012

People

Russian traders learn of a “Great Land” to the east

1711

Vitus Bering sets sail

1725

Peter the Great of Russia commissions a Danish sea captain, Vitus Bering to explore the Northwest. He sails east nearly 5,000 miles and 16 years from Petersburg to the Pacific

Juan Perez explores the west coast

1774

Juan Perez ordered by Spain to explore the west coast and discovers Prince of Wales Island

Captain James Cook of England explores Arctic Ocean

1778

Captain James Cook of England explores Arctic Ocean. While searching for the passage, Cook explored the waterway that downtown Anchorage now borders, Cook Inlet

Russians encounter Tlingit Native Alaskans

1783

First white settlement established at Three Saints Bay, Kodiak Island

1784

Russians enslave the Aleuts to hunt fur seals

1788

Alexander Baranov becomes director of Russian American fur trading company

1790

Catherine II grants a monopoly of furs in Alaska to Grigorii Shelikov

1791

George Vancouver leaves England to explore the coast

1791

Alejandro Malaspina explores the northwest coast for Spain.

John Veniaminov

1797

1823- John Veniaminov (Archbishop (now Saint) Innocent (1797-1879)) accepts an invitation to work in Sitka, Alaska. 1823-1868 he worked in Alaska, opened a bilingual school in which both Aleut and Russian were taught. Believed we should work together and preserve the Native way. Translated and published several books in Aleut and composed some original works in the language.

Alexander Baranov establishes Russian post known today as Old Sitka

1799

Alexander Baranov establishes Russian post known today as Old Sitka; trade charter grants exclusive trading rights to the Russian American Company.

Russians use Aleut hunters to hunt sea otters

1800

Sheldon Jackson

1834

1877- Sheldon Jackson (1834-1909) An American clergyman arrives in Alaska until 1884. This missionary founded schools but had a very different approach than his Russian predecessor. He believed everyone should be converted to Christianity, learn English and forget the Native ways.

America at war with itself, Russia has also been at war

1861

Andrew Johnson is President

1867

William Seward (Secretary of State) –Baron de Stoeckl (Russian Ambassador) debate rages in congress about value of Alaska Treaty.

William Seward

1869

William Seward (Secretary of State) negotiates the purchase of Alaska

John Kinkead, mayor of Sitka

1870

Yankee Whalers in Arctic

1876

Yankee Whalers in Arctic

1876

Lt. Henry Allen- maps three major rivers

1883

Sheldon Jackson & Sinrock Mary

1891

Gets money from government and goes to Siberia takes Sinrock Mary (part Russian) translator to buy reindeer so people can raise herd and never go hungry again. People call her Queen Mary

Hudson Stuck

1913

Summits Mt. Denali

President Woodrow Wilson authorizes construction of the Alaska Railroad

1914

Warren G Harding 1st president to visit Alaska

1923

Lloyd Wakefield

1942

Getting Alaskan King Crab, making it a big business

President Roosevelt authorizes construction of the Alcan Highway

1942

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

1971

Natives win land and money in historic legislation

Molly Hootch

1972

Molly Hootch Case- suing state for failing to provide village high schools

The Permanent Fund Dividend is started

1976

Tony Knowles and Fran Ulmer

1994

Tony Knowles elected ninth governor of Alaska and Fran Ulmer served as the first female Lieutenant Governor in Alaska history.

Land

First Russian ships arrived and established fur trade

1740

Concentrated hunting of sea otter by Russia begins

1743

First white settlement established at Three Saints Bay, Kodiak Island

1784

The first Russian Orthodox Church established in Kodiak

1795

Alaska Purchased

1867

Andrew Johnson is President. William Seward (Secretary of State) –Baron de Stoeckl (Russian Ambassador) debate rages in congress about value of Alaska Treaty

Mining Act claims land rights

1872

Gold Fever- thousands to Alaska and Canada

1890 - 1905

Reindeer imported

1891

Gold discovered in The Canadian Klondike

1897

Gold in Nome

1900

Many came to seek gold in Nome. The railroad from Skagway to White Horse is completed.

Alaska-Canada border is settled

1903

Copper discovered in Cordova

1906

Copper mining begins

1911

Railroad is finished , 4 years to build employed 6,000 men. Richest and purest deposit of copper in the world

Mt. Katmai erupts

1912

Alaska becomed a US territory

1912

Anchorage is established

1915

Railroad completed

1923

Warren G. Harding 1st US president to visit Alaska drives in golden spike to mark the completion of the Alaska Railroad

Matanuska Valley, AK

1935

Poor Midwest families come to settle. Pioneer community carved out of the wilderness

Alcan Highway

1942

President Roosevelt authorizes construction of the Alcan Highway

Alaska Statehood

1959

January 3rd, 1959 in a 64-20 vote

Good Friday Earthquake

1964

The most powerful quake ever recorded in the history of North America, 90 foot waves. 115 people died in Alaska. President Johnson declared it a national emergency.

Oil discovered in Prudhoe Bay

1968

Natives win land and money in historic legislation

1971

Congress passes the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act

1973

Salmon fisheries limited entry program becomes law.

Oil begins to flow (pipeline)

1977

Congress designates the Iditarod trail as a National Historic Trail.

1978

Wilderness is set aside

1980

Alaska lands are preserved for future generations

Statehood Silver Anniversary

1984

Silver anniversary of statehood (25 years). Alaska is the fastest growing state in the nation

50th Anniversary of Statehood

2009