introduced in 12th c
Major resource of income for Spanish crown, very popular in Chinese markets
could tell where you were relative to longitude, not latitude though
replaced square sails, easier to handle the cross winds with
imitations of Roman domes, from Leonardo da Vinci
With the technology from China, Johann Gutenburg created the printing press which led to more literacy, cheaper more available books, and an overall growth of knowledge of religious ideas, medicine, science and geography.
Divides entire world between Spain and Portugal
Pope Paul III calls periodic meetings about the reformations
All of Europe involved in conflict, principal battleground: Deutschland
Ended the 30 years war. Each prince can decide the religion of his state
people can win salvation by faith alone, teachings based on the Bible-- not the pope.
Switzerland and low countries follow Deutschland; Scotland, Niederlande, Hungary also experience reform movement. Deutschland at war, Protestants vs Catholic. Roman Catholic Church responds be refining the doctrine and promoting missionary activities.
Most prominent in regions of tensions, development of belief in Devil and human assistants. by 16th-17th century 100,000 people put to death.
King Henry VIII has conflict with the Pope over requested divorce
Protestants and Roman Catholics fight in France. Niederlanden rebel against Spain, gain independence.
Catholic church is unified, Protestant denominations grow. Catholics and Protestants create school throughout Europe
Seizes the Strait of Gibraltar, begins encouragement of major Atlantic voyages-- was searching for a sea route to Indian Ocean basin
Voyage sponsored by Fernando and Isabel of Spain, since he couldn't get the Portuguese to sponsor him. Thought the Earth was smaller, in his efforts to find a path to Asia he "discovered" America (Bahamas, Cuba)
Beginnings of European imperialism in Asia
Started the Reformation be challenging the Church's authority-- wrote The 95 Theses and nailed in to the church door, protested corrupt leaders, Church's selling of indulgence. Pope Leo X excommunicates him, but that doesn't stop his ideas.
uses Spanish support to circumnavigate the world, crew attacked by scurvy-- 35/250 sailors survived
Copernicus- sun centered universe, Kepler-Elliptical orbits, Galileo-telescope & formula for inertia, Isaac Newton- gravity, Francis Bacon- "Father of scientific Revolution" inductive method, Rene Descartes- deductive method & significance of doubt
Yuan dynasty collapses, Mongols depart. Re-establishment of Confucian education system, centralized structure that lasts through Qing dynasty. Golden Age of Chinese art, introduction of literacy and further promotes commercial marketing. Silver Market-- triangle trade (from Philippines to China to Japan), reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe, increases interest in Chinese culture and ideas, helps fund the conquest of the new world, and encourages Europeans in conquering and trade. Exploration-- hesitant to have large foreign populations, placed trade under imperial control, thought is was bad for the Chinese to be exposed to new ideas. After Zhong He's death in 1433, The confucian officials persuaded the new emperors to stop new voyages. In 1500's the Chinese government controlled all contact with outsiders, with government policies favoring farming over manufacturing and merchants.