Period 4


Astrolobe, compass


could tell where you were relative to longitude, not latitude though

Chinese Rudder


introduced in 12th c



Major resource of income for Spanish crown, very popular in Chinese markets

Lateen sails


replaced square sails, easier to handle the cross winds with

Architecture: Domed Cathedrals


imitations of Roman domes, from Leonardo da Vinci

Printing press


With the technology from China, Johann Gutenburg created the printing press which led to more literacy, cheaper more available books, and an overall growth of knowledge of religious ideas, medicine, science and geography.


Beginning of the Portuguese Slave Trade


Treaty of Tordesillas


Divides entire world between Spain and Portugal

Spanish Conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul III calls periodic meetings about the reformations

The Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1645

All of Europe involved in conflict, principal battleground: Deutschland

Peace of Augsburg


Ended the 30 years war. Each prince can decide the religion of his state



1517 - 1648

Switzerland and low countries follow Deutschland; Scotland, Niederlande, Hungary also experience reform movement. Deutschland at war, Protestants vs Catholic. Roman Catholic Church responds be refining the doctrine and promoting missionary activities.

Luther's teachings


people can win salvation by faith alone, teachings based on the Bible-- not the pope.

Witch Hunts


Most prominent in regions of tensions, development of belief in Devil and human assistants. by 16th-17th century 100,000 people put to death.

England forms it's own Church


King Henry VIII has conflict with the Pope over requested divorce

Religious wars

1562 - 1598

Protestants and Roman Catholics fight in France. Niederlanden rebel against Spain, gain independence.

The Legacy of the Reformation


Catholic church is unified, Protestant denominations grow. Catholics and Protestants create school throughout Europe


Henry the Navigator


Seizes the Strait of Gibraltar, begins encouragement of major Atlantic voyages-- was searching for a sea route to Indian Ocean basin

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

Voyage sponsored by Fernando and Isabel of Spain, since he couldn't get the Portuguese to sponsor him. Thought the Earth was smaller, in his efforts to find a path to Asia he "discovered" America (Bahamas, Cuba)

Bartolomeu Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope [1488 CE]

1488 CE

Beginnings of European imperialism in Asia

Martin Luther


Started the Reformation be challenging the Church's authority-- wrote The 95 Theses and nailed in to the church door, protested corrupt leaders, Church's selling of indulgence. Pope Leo X excommunicates him, but that doesn't stop his ideas.

Ferdinand Magellan

1519 - 1522

uses Spanish support to circumnavigate the world, crew attacked by scurvy-- 35/250 sailors survived

Lots of science people


Copernicus- sun centered universe, Kepler-Elliptical orbits, Galileo-telescope & formula for inertia, Isaac Newton- gravity, Francis Bacon- "Father of scientific Revolution" inductive method, Rene Descartes- deductive method & significance of doubt


Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Yuan dynasty collapses, Mongols depart. Re-establishment of Confucian education system, centralized structure that lasts through Qing dynasty. Golden Age of Chinese art, introduction of literacy and further promotes commercial marketing. Silver Market-- triangle trade (from Philippines to China to Japan), reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe, increases interest in Chinese culture and ideas, helps fund the conquest of the new world, and encourages Europeans in conquering and trade. Exploration-- hesitant to have large foreign populations, placed trade under imperial control, thought is was bad for the Chinese to be exposed to new ideas. After Zhong He's death in 1433, The confucian officials persuaded the new emperors to stop new voyages. In 1500's the Chinese government controlled all contact with outsiders, with government policies favoring farming over manufacturing and merchants.