Lasting for more than 600 years, the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor and was one of the most powerful countries in the world. The Ottoman Empire was at its prime during the 15th and 16th centuries, the country had claimed most of southeastern Europe and up to the gates of Vienna. After its collapse in 1922, the country returned as modern day Turkey.
The Songhai Empire was an empire that spanned from the Niger River to modern day Mali. Originally under the Mali empire, the Songhai Empire became to be after Sunni Ali, the prince of the Songhai and political prisoner escaped and to over the city of Gao. The Songhai Empire collapsed after being weakened by civil war, finally collapsing after the Moroccan Army invaded.
Martin Luther was a professor of theology and was is most famously known for his 95 thesis, which he nailed to his university's chapel door. This was in response to the church selling indulgences, to get people's loved ones out of purgatory. He was excommunicated by the Catholic Church, but started a protestant revolution, known as Lutheranism. Lutherans today follow his thoughts of what he thought of the church, while still worshiping the Christian holy trinity.
The Berlin Conference was the conference that would decide which European Countries got which part of the land. This time period is also known as the Scramble for Africa. Great Britain, Germany and France were looking for goods such as metal ores and a place for commerce. Eventually, other countries joined in for claims and contracts with the natives. In the end, the African continent was mapped and the involved countries negotiated their land and business claims. While the Conference didn't start colonization in Africa, it did lay the formal framework for it. Historically, this is significant because in the end, Britain had large majority of land as territories, thus creating a soon to be unstable colonies that would soon revolt.
Also known as the U.S. War of Independence War, the American Revolution was a war against the then British Colonies and Great Britain. While most believe the war to have begun on July 4, 1776, the tensions began in 1775 with small fights going on. Eventually, The United State of America. won after the battle Yorktown, but wasn't fully recognized until the Treaty of Paris. The American Revolution is extremely significant to history, not only does it show that having colonies and enforcing laws and taxes that only applied to them is a bad idea and thus resulting in a war. It's like trying to make a dog follow every singe direction you give it, eventually, the dog is going to bite back. The American Revolution would soon lead to a World Power, that would help end World War 1 and World War 2.
The British abolished Slave Trade on 1807 and made Slave Trade illegal in all British Colonies.
The All-Indian Muslim League was founded in 1906 to protect the rights of Indian Muslims. Originally, Britain supported the league, until the league wanted to be separated from Britain in 1913. It's significance is the league eventually called for it's own separate nation which is now Pakistan.