Age of Enlightenment and Scientific Evolution timeline


Nicolaus Copernicus


What: Published a book named "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres", which was about his ideas about the moon and the sun.
Where: Poland
Why: Copernicus's theory about the heliocentric view turned out to be correct, and is still part of modern astronomy

Francis Bacon


What: Came up with the scientific method, which was: question, hypothesis, experiment, observations and data, and analyze.
Where: England
Why: Scientists after that used the method to make amazing discoveries as well as people modern days.

Galileo Galilei


What: Published a book called "Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems"
Where: Padua, Italy
Why: His book about the Heliocentric view and geocentric view caused a uproar, since Galileo took the side of the heliocentric view. This view was right, and soon influenced other scientists as well.

Isaac Newton


What: Published a book called "principia"
Where: England
Why: He wanted people to know about his theories about gravity and the three laws of motion. This theory turned out to be correct.

Thomas Hobbe


What: Hobbes published a book named "Leviathan", which was a book about his ideas on human nature.
Where: England
Why: This had ideas about human nature as well as government, and his philosophy was a bit cruel, but it was based on observation and reasoning, and lots of people came to agree with Hobbes.

Robert Hook


What: Published a book named "Micrographia", which was about his new discovery, cells.
Where: United Kingdom
Why: Cells are the basic units of life, and are still commonly known and studied by people in modern days.

John Locke


What: John published his book "Two Treatises of Government", which denied the divine right of kings and explained the true basis of government.
Where: England
Why: Because his ideas were fair and right about government, and is used by the US government today.

Baron De Montesquieu


What: Baron published his most famous book, "The Spirit of Laws", which was about government and the separation of powers.
Where: France
Why: This is important because the Us government uses his idea of Separation of Powers, which divides the government into three branches: Judicial, Legislative, and Executive.



What: Published a book named "Candide", which was a humorous novel that poked fun at the idea of god making the world.
Where: France
Why: This book also was concerned with freedom of thought and expression, which most people agree with, and is applied into the laws of the united states.

Cesare Beccaria


What: Published a book named "On Crimes and Punishment", which was about stopping cruel practices.
Where: Milan, Italy
Why: The cruel punishments for crime, such as thumbs being crushed, have stopped after this book was published.