A Timeline for AP World History. ~Alexis Juarez
The Ottoman Dynasty was composed of several sultans, leaders of the Ottoman Empire. Siginicant sultans included Mehmet I and Suleiman the Magnificent that had expanded a majority of territory owned by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Dynasty would see its downfall by 1922 due their weak forces and nationalistic views of conquered people.
Known to be the largest of the three major pre-colonial empires to exist from West Africa, this empire was built from the mistakes of the Mali Empire in Gao, Songhai's first capital established by its own people. Throughout the dynasty of the empire, peace prospered while government leaders were appointed and people were encouraged to migrate to the empire.
Prince Henry the Navigator from Portugal was most famous for sponsoring expeditions and voyages across the world. He was most famous for furthering the development of geography, mapmaking, and naviagtion, along with developing the Atlantic Slave Trade.
The Portugese slave trade began with an expedition in 1441 by Prince Henry the Navigator. By 1444, more than 200 enslaved Africans were traded back to Portugal in Lago in cargo. From Portugal, cargo ships containing slaves were sent to many places across the Atlantic Ocean.
Most famous for his stance against the Roman Catholic Church, Martin Luther was a German professor and priest. Along with his stance against Catholicism, he also wrote the Ninety-Five Theses. He had made a major inpact at the start of the Protestant Reformation in Europe.
Christopher Columbus had begun his first expediion from Spain to find a route on water directly to Asia. A month after setting sail, he had discovered an island in the Bahamas which he would rename San Salvador.
The Safavid Dynasty was founded by Ismail and led by leader Shah Abba. Their objective was to force everyone to convert to their original religion. Since they had various leaders wihin the army, many of them were weak causing their troops and their economy to be weak as well. With this, when the Ottomans and Russians swept in to take control of Safavid territory, they did in a swift manner due to their weak army.
John Calvin, born in Noyon, France, was the successor of Martin Luther as the primary Protestant theologian. He was most known for his ideals of action without emotion. He published the Institutes of the Christian Religion. He also held his belief that God would choose whether or not a person will go into heaven based on their power of good and grace.
After Christopher Columbus had discovered and considered European settlement in the Caribbean, Spain had wanted to go further and explore uncharted territory. Upon arriving in present-day Mexico, Hernan Cortes had lead Spanish forces along with Tlaxalan warriors to capture Emperor Cuauhtemoc of the Aztec Empire to officially claim Mexico as Spanish territory.
Established in 1526, the Mughal Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty with controlling most the Hindu areas in india. Founded by Babur, the dynasty was based on a caste system with their success being based in overseas trading. The dynasty was considered one of the gunpowder empires. Their main objective was to unite Hindus and Muslims into one united state of India.
The Society of Jesus was a Roman Catholic organization with the purpose to convert millions of people around the world to Catholicism. Founded by Ignatius in 1539, the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul II on September 27, 1540.
The Council of Trent was formed in 1545 as part of the Roman Catholic Church. The purpose of the council was to challenge and clarify every doctrine ever contested by the Protestants. The council lasted for 3 periods before being disbanded in the face of scandal and misconception by the public.
The third ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India, Akbar was the most influential and signifcant leader in the dynasty. He managed to create a stable economy that would evenutally his country stronger, tripling in size and wealth during his reign. He abolished the sectarian tax for non-Muslims and gave the government jobs as a result. This would led to Akbar winning both the native and non-native trust of most people.
Galileo, from Italy, was a scientist who was the first to use the telescope. Along with writing several scientific works, he also developed the scientific method and his Theory of Inertia.
The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships led by the Duke of Medina Sidonia. The main goal of this armada was to escort a Spanish army to Britain for invasion from Flanders in May. The Armada was delayed due to weather and pushed back two months before they faced British warships and had to retreat to Scotland for supplies.
The Tokugawa Shogunate was the final feudal military government Japan would have. Having ruled for more than 200 years, their head of government was the shogun. By 1853, Japan had ended its isolation from the world and began to transition into the Meiji government. Along with the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate, it also marked the end of the Edo period.
Originally, the Thirty Years' War started as a religious war between Protestant and Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire. As the years went on, the war turned from religion to political dominance in Central Europe as many powerful nations like England and France would enter the war against the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. The war would end with signed treaties by all parties.
John Locke was an English philosopher who attended the University of Oxford in England. He was most known for his contributions to the creation of a liberal government and for his piece, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which was about the human mind and its capabilities to gain and understand knowledge.
Known as the last imperial dynasty to rule China, the Qing Dynasty was more isolated based in China, closing its doors to foreign trade and communication witht the exception of the Opium Wars. Some of their main objectives was to pass on traditional Chinese culture down to the young children. The Qing Dynasty's fall was the isolation and their army being weak, especially after the Opium Wars.
The Seven Years' War consisted of two separate conflicts between several different countries. The first conflict was between Britain and its Bourbon enemies, France and Spain. The second conflict was between Frederick Ii of Prussia and Austria, France, Russia, and Sweden. It all started for Frederick II when he invaded Saxony in order to avoid a Austro-Russian attack.
James Watts (1736-1819), was handed a model Newcomen steam engine to repair in 1764. He noticed that a lot of the steam produced was instantly lossed. He added a seperate condesing chamber that would maintain a majority of the steam in. He patent the improvements of the engine in 1769.
King Louis XVI of France was on the throne prior to the French Revolution. He was the last known King of France until the establishment of Napoleon and being overthrown by the National Assembly. Louis XVI was known as a careless leader and is thought to be the main cause for France to go down in ruin thus causing the revolution. In France, Louis XVI kept spending money on unnecessary extravegences while his own citizens were constantly being thrown into more taxes eventually leading them to being poor. He was exectued in 1793.
Starting 1775, the American Revolution was a cultivation of a war, protest, and eventually independence from Great Britain. Starting as several protests such as the Boston Tea Party, patriots were being hit with more taxes which would follow a change in government in the colonies. It became war in 1778 between the United States and the British Empire. It would later become an international war as France, Spain, and the Netherlands would offer assistance to the colonies against the British. The result of the revolution was the United States being granted independence from Britain on September 3, 1783.
The French Revolution started in 1789, consisted of French citizens that felt that their government was failing and their king, King Louis XVI, being the worse in their history. Along with the country as a whole, on the edge of bankruptcy, French citizens felt the need to take their country back and thus protested in violence against the National Assembly. The French Revolution marked the start for the young general, Napoleon Bonaparte.
Taking place in Haiti, Haitians protested French rule on the colony, along with slavery that was still a part of their life. Started by Toussaint L'Overture, a Haiti-born representative, traveled to France to claim independence from France. Coming back in dissapointment, he continued efforts by gathering more people in rebellion against white slave-masters and French troops. Napoleon, ruler of France at the time, sent troops to capture and jail L'Overture. While L'Overture was in jail, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, one of L'Overture's generals, continued the rebellion against French rule unti 1803 where French troops were defeated. In 1804, Dessalines declared Haiti's independence from France.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), is a French general who assumed control of France after the French revolution and a coup d’état. Once taking power, he began to expand his power all over Europe until reaching Russia in 1812. He suffered significant losses in the failure to expand towards Russia. He abdicated himself from the throne for two years in 1814.
The official ending to the British Slave Trade occured with the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in 1807. This act made it illegal to be included with any slave trades throughout British colonies. Illegal trafficking, however, did not end slave trading until 1811.
In Venezuela and Argentina, led by Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin between 1811 and 1821. In Mexico between 1810 and 1821, Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos gained their independence from Spain once it gained support from the Creoles. In Brazil between 1821 and 1824, Dom Predo I had been asked by Brazilians to rule Brazil as an independent country.
Established after the abdication of Napoleon I in 1814, the Congress of Vienna was made with the purpose to establish fair and legitimate power to European countries across Europe. The nations included Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, France, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain. Each would send representatives to Vienna. The congress would end on 1915 with the "Final Act", compromised of all the agreements made throughout the year into one. All nations except Spain signed the agreement thus ending the congress.
The first Opium War was between China and Britain. The first was between 1839 and 1842 with the purpose of stopping Opium trading in China. China had been fighting illegal opium trade against foreign traders like Britain. The cause for action started when British citizens in China killed a Chinese man. The British government had extradited them back to Britain but China demanded they be returned to China to face punishment under the Chinese circuit.
Written by Karl Marx with help from Fredrich Engels, published the Communist Manifesto in London by the Communist League. The pamphlet presented an analytical point of view to the class struggle around the world. It also presented the problems of capitalism and its mode of production along with Marx's own ideas that socialism would soon replace capitalists societies.
Started by Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864), who was a rejected civil service examination candidate, who believed he was sent from God to help restore China to its glory. The rebellion was in retaliation to the Qing Dynasty and during a time where China was weak and people were willing to join Hong. However, because of Hong's corrupted mindset, at the end of the rebellion, many turned against Hong as it made them angry. Hong commited suicide in 1864.
The Crimean War took place on the Crimean Peninsula and fought between Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish. The army of Sardinia-Piedmont would support the British, etc., starting on January 1855. The cause of the war was Russia's demands to protect the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan. Other causes was conflicts between Russia and France over the rights of the Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in Palestine.
One of early rebellions in the path to Indian independence. Starting in Meerut by Indian troops and spreading to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. Consisted majorily of violent attacks on the British. This rebellion would ultimately fail but would prove a major role as being named the First War of Independence.
Written by Charles Darwin, Origin of Species was a book about evolution and natural selection throughout human history. Published in England in 1859, sold out immediately on the first few days.
A political revolution with the purpose of restoring imperial rule under Mutsuhito. In order to do this, the Tokugawa shogunate had to be brought down. They did this by creating a coup with anti-shogunate nobles and patrotic samurai joining forces. Emperor Meiji restored his power and took away feudalism.
A waterway located between Asia and Africa. Used as a maritime route between Europe and islands around India and the western Pacific oceans. Mostly used as shipping routes as it extends 120 miles between North and Suez in the south.
Held in Berlin, Germany, the purpose of this conference was to establish the independence of Congo in Africa. At this time, Portugal purposed that it take control of the Congo River along with Congo. The conference, purposed by Portugal, invited the majority of European nations that had connections to Africa ownership. This conference established that Congo, along with the Congo River, were both neutral in Africa. Congo would become its own state in Africa and the Congo River would be used as a trading route for all states surrounding the river in Africa.
Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded to pursue the movement for indepdence from the British Empire. Formed by Mohandas Gandhi, this party wanted peaceful protests against the British Empire. Protests included boycotting the use of imported British goods. India would gain independence on July 1947.
Taking place in South Africa, the Boer War was between the British Empire and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State. Starting on October of 1899 in South Africa, British troops captured a majority of Boer cities. In retaliation, Boers started a guerrilla war but in 1901, the British counteracted movements by forcing Boer families into concentration camps and destroying the guerrilla units. By 1902, Boer resistance fell and the Peace of Vereeniging was signed.
Led by the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, this uprising started in Northern China. The purpose of this uprising was to counteract the spread of Western and Japanese influence in Northern China. People in this uprising performed various exercises that would make them believe to have the ability to withstand bullets. Along with destroying property belonging to foreigners, they also killed them and Chinese Christians in the process. International troops would later end the rebellion in 1901 with China agreeing to pay more than $300 million in reparations.
A military war between Japan and Russia in which Russia was trying to expand further east into Japanese territory including Korea. Japan had pushed Russia back far enough to force Russia to surrender in Mukden between February and March, 1905. The result was Japan winning control of the Liaodong Peninsula and the South Manchurian Railway.
Also known as the Muslim League, the All-India Muslim League was a political party established during the era of British India. Created by Aga Khan III and its leader, Muhammad Iqbal, the party's main objectives was to maintain the rights of all Indian Muslims and to create a seperate Muslim India.
Henry Ford (1863-1947), had created his first carriage that was gasoline powered. He created the Ford Motor Company in Detroit, Michigan, with its first car, the Model T. Since demand was greater than anticipated, Ford came up with the Assembly line method to use in production plants and built the Model T at a faster rate. The Assembly line was a production method that consisted of the car itself, moving in a line while workers would place in the right parts and would make itself to the end of the line as a completed car.
Beginning as a United States project, a canal was built across the Panama isthmus stretching across 50 miles in width. The purpose of the canal was to help eliminate mosquitoes carring any type of disease. The Panama Canal opened in August of 1914. Control of the canal was transferred to Panama in 1999.