Fergana Valley



Approx. 550 - 659

Gokturks take control of the Fergana Valley


659 - 681

Chinese gain control over the Gokturks.


681 - Approx. 715

Gokturks regain control over the area.

Mixed Control

Approx. 715 - 751

As the power of the Gokturks fall, Chinese forces and various Muslim powers fight for dominance over the area.

Mixed Control

751 - 819

Following the Battle of Talas in 751, Chinese groups left the area. Arab, Persian and eventually Turkish Muslims fight for control.

Samanid Caliphate

819 - Approx. 980

The Samanid Caliphate, which is mostly connected to a Persian ethnic group, gains control over the region.


Approx. 980 - 1219

The Karakahanids, who are a Turkish ethnic group. take control over the Fergana Valley after the Samanid Caliphate falls. There are some internal struggles, but this cultural group remains mostly dominate until 1219.


1219 - Approx. 1380

The Mongols invade in 1219, displacing the already weak governmental system. The Fergana Valley eventually becomes a part of the Mongol Empire.

Timurid Dynasty

Approx. 1380 - Approx. 1555

The Timurid Dynasty is very connected to the Turko-Muslim empire that developed after the Mongol invasion but is a more specific cultural entity connected to Persian groups.

Shaybanid Dynasty

Approx. 1555 - 1599

The Shaybanid Dynasty is also a Turko-Muslim entity. This dynasty is more connected to Uzbek heritage and culture.

Janid Dynasty of Bukhara

1599 - 1876

The Janid Dynasty followed the Shaybanid Dynasty, but descended from different cultural groups, such as the Astrakhan Khanate, while the Shaybanid Dynasty had bigger connections to Uzbek ethnic groups.

Khanate of Kokand

1709 - 1876

Predominately Uzbeks who were part of the Shaybanid dynasty declared independence from the Khanate of Bukhara and set up a state in the eastern part of Fergana Valley.

Russian Turkestan

1876 - Approx. 1920

Soviet Russia takes over the area and creates a large land state named Russian Turkestan.

Russian Turkestan

Approx. 1920 - 1991

Soviet Russia creates states to split up resources and therefore power in Turkestan.

Tajikistan, Uzbekistan & Kyrgyzstan

1991 - Present

Countries are established (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan) which split up resources and land in the Fergana Valley.