AP European History Timeline

Devin Jiang Rolf: AP Euro Zero Period

Important Events

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.

The Black Death

1346 - 1353

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe. This led to more right for peasants.

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome.

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1648

Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War.

Commercial Revolution

1488 - 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1776

Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution.

Discovery of the New World

1492

Columbus discovers the Americas.

95 Theses

1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War.

Diet of Worms

1521

A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1789

Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.

French Wars on Religion

1562 - 1598

Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes.

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.

Spanish Armada

1588

The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.

Important People

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.

Erasmus

1466 - 1534

Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Florentine Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. Wrote "The Prince" in 1532.

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor.

John Calvin

1530

John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on predestination.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets.

Rulers

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella

1469

King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.

King Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.

James I of England

1567 - 1625

King Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"

Louis Xiii

1610 - 1643

Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.

Art

Mannerism Art

1500 - 1580

Boroque

1580 - 1800