The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.
Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.
The Black Death
1346 - 1353
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe. This led to more right for peasants.
1350 - 1527
Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome.
1450 - 1648
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War.
1488 - 1776
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776.
1492 - 1776
Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution.
Discovery of the New World
Columbus discovers the Americas.
Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation.
1517 - 1648
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War.
Diet of Worms
A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.
1543 - 1789
Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.
Peace of Augsburg
The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.
French Wars on Religion
1562 - 1598
Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.
The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.
Thirty Years' War
1618 - 1648
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.
English Civil War
1642 - 1649
Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.
1304 - 1374
Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.
1466 - 1534
Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
1469 - 1527
Florentine Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. Wrote "The Prince" in 1532.
1473 - 1543
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
1483 - 1546
German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor.
John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on predestination.
1564 - 1616
Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets.
Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.
King Henry VIII
1509 - 1547
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Mary I of England
1553 - 1558
"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.
James I of England
1567 - 1625
King Henry IV of France
1589 - 1610
Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
1610 - 1643
Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.
Charles I of England
1625 - 1649
Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.