Devin Jiang Rolf: AP Euro Zero Period
The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe. This led to more right for peasants.
Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome.
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War.
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776.
Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution.
Columbus discovers the Americas.
Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation.
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War.
A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.
German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.
Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.
The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.
Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes.
The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.
Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.
The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.
Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.
Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.
Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.
Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
Florentine Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. Wrote "The Prince" in 1532.
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor.
John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on predestination.
Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets.
King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.
Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.
Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.