James I (r. 1603-1625) is Elizabeth's Scottish cousin.
Charles wanted to be able to collect customs duties on wine (tonnage) and wool (poundage), but Parliament argued against it. There had also been conflict over religious innovations.
Laud = Archbishop of Canterbury. Change = new prayer book and bishoprics ----> Presbyterian Scots reject
Limit monarch's power; called by Charles I's need to finance army to beat Scots' rebellion; people disliked taxation without consent, ex: ship money (taxed inland + coastal areas to pay for defense ships)
Parliament called every 3 years; Laud impeached; Court of High Commission abolished; threatened to abolish institution of episcopacy
Parliament didn't trust Charles --> was not willing to give him army he needed to deal with Scottish and Irish rebellion --> Charles recruited army against Parliament --> Parliament recruits own army. Was to decide if sovereigny = in king or Parliament
Charge of high treason = blow to "divine-right" theory. English Civil War ends. Kingship abolished- commonwealth (republican government) proclaimed. Interregnum (1649-1660 period separating monarchies) begins. Cromwell and army take power.
Mercantilist policy requires English goods be shipped on English boats. results: merchant marine up, short successful war w/ Dutch.
Cromwell rules military dictatorship that is officially called a "Protectorate". Constitution drawn up by army that: put executive power in lord protector (Cromwell) & a council of state; triennial Parliament w/ sole power to raise taxes. Cromwell tears up the Instrument & announced quasi-martial law.
Military government collapses. English want to restore civilian gov, common law, & social stability.
Charles II (r. 1660-1685), eldest son of Charles I, takes over. Has generally good relations w/ restored Parliament (appointed Cabal- members of Parliament, advisors to king, liasions between executive and legislative branches). Also restored: established Anglican church, courts of law, & local govs through justices of the peace.
Charles would receive 200,000 pounds annually for passing laws for Catholics, gradually re-Catholicize England, support French policy against Dutch + convert Catholicism
Those not of the Church Of England couldn't hold public office, preach, teach, attend universities or assemble for meetings. These restrictions could not be enforced; the judges would not convict the "criminal"
CATHOLIC; England's worst nightmare, King causing Glorious Revolution, broke Test Act, suspended law at will, religious freedom. Persecuted Puritans, people who wanted to reform the Church of England, causing them to flee to America.
This proves to be the spark of the Glorious Revolution. It would ensure an unwanted Catholic dynasty for England.
In the event known as the Glorious Revolution, for the little blood shed. William and Mary become the new monarchs of England. They establish the constitutional monarchy, in which the king's power is balanced by the constitution.
They with Parliament made the Bill of Rights, in which Parliament made laws, their laws couldn't be vetoed by the king, Parliament has to be called at least every three years, elections/debates had no king interference, judges held positions for good behavior, no standing army during peace, Catholics couldn't possess guns, religious freedom for Protestants and the King must always be Protestant.
Locke proposes "natural rights" that the gov must protect in order to avoid being overthrown: life, liberty, and property.