Osman was the first ruler of the Ottoman Empire. He was also known as Othman, so his followers became known as Ottomans. During his rule, Osman created a strong military by being among the first to use canons.
The Renaissance was a period of artistic rebirth in Europe. Europeans were celebrating their freedom from the dark ages and the bubonic plague.
Timur the Lame was a rebellious warrior who briefly interrupted the expansion on the Ottoman Empire by burning down Baghdad.
Columbus’ voyage spread curiosity of other lands to Europeans and kick started the age of exploration.
Babur was the first ruler of the Mughal Empire. He built an army and set the foundation for the Mughal Empire
Ivan the Terrible ruled in Russia. He had a "good period" and a "bad period". During his good period, he gained land for Russia and established a code of laws, His bad period began when his wife, Anastasia Romanov, died. He claims that the Boyers, or Russian landowners, killed his wife. To punish them, he creates a police force. Towards the end of his rule, he has an argument with his son and kills him.
This document stated that the ruler of a country could choose that country's religion.
Akbar created a new tax code to be used in the Mughal Empire. His system taxed people based on their incomes. This system is still used today in countries such as the US and is called gradual income tax.
The Edict of Nantes was signed by King Henry IV in order to establish and protect the rights of the French protestants, or huguenots.
Jamestown was the first successful english colony in the Americas. This success caused more colonization in America.
The 30 Years War was a religious war fought between the Hapsburgs and the Protestants. Later in the war, the catholics of France join forces with the Protestants.
Shah Jahan is responsible for the construction of the Taj Mahal. He built it in honor of his deceased wife. While Shah Jahan ruled, India suffered due to the heavy taxes required to construct the Taj Mahal.
Galileo is put on trial by the Church because his beliefs on the creation of the world differ from theirs. This causes tension between scientist and the church.
The English Civil War was fought because Charles the first tried to create one religion for both England and Scotland. When the people rebelled, Charles went to parliament and asked for money to put towards an army. When Parliament said no, Charles I tried but failed to arrest them. This further divides the country. Meanwhile, Oliver Cromwell becomes Parliament's General and has Charles I executed.
The Peace of Westphalia ended the 30 Years War. It weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria, but strengthened France.
When Aurangzeb ruled the Mughal Empire, his subjects were oppressed. He brought back strict Islamic laws and a tax on non-muslim people that had previously been abolished.
Peter the Great was a ruler of Russia. He gained the warm water port of St. Petersburg and pushed to modernize Russia.
John Kay created the flying shuttle, a weaving machine that doubled the work that a human could do in one day. This boosted industrialization.
The French and Indian war was an important event in US history because of the debt that it caused England. To rectify this debt, England began taxing the colonies and angered the colonists to the point of rebellion. It also caused the French economy to worsen due to debt. This was a cause of the French Revolution.
The Proclamation of 1763 stated that the colonists in North America could not venture past the Appalachain mountains. Its intent was to prevent conflict between the colonists and the Native Americans.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord started the American Revolution.
The Olive Branch Petition was a letter from the colonies written King George in attempt to avoid war.
Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame and produced the spinning mule. It made string that was finer, stronger and more consistent.
The Battle of Yorktown ended the American Revolution and brought another large power into the world.
The French Revolution was a result of the unfair class system in France. The Third Estate payed the majority of taxes and made no political decisions. The First and Second estates payed little or no taxes and made all political decisions. The Third Estate fought for equal representation in the French Revolution.
Samuel Slater brought the design for the spinning machine to the US, boosting industrialization in America.
The Tennis Court oath was one of the events in the French Revolution. The members of the National Assembly refused to leave the royal tennis courts until a new constitution was created.
The Legislative Assembly dissolved the monarchy in France and introduced a new form of government to Europe.
This was a major advancement for the United States because it gave them much more land to expand upon. One of Napoleon’s reasons for selling the land was to give England a rival. This shows his true hatred for England.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines liberates Haiti from French control.
Napoleon placed a blockade on all ports in Europe with intent to hurt England's economy. This was one of the factors that caused the fall of Napoleon’s empire. In the end it aided the economy by forcing European countries to become more self-sufficient.
Napoleon’s rule caused many issues between European countries and within France.
Napoleon sends a force through Spain and Portugal to force the acceptance of the Continental system. This causes nationalism to spread throughout Spain and for the Spanish to attack the French.
Their goal was to restore a balance of powers in Europe. To achieve this, countries surrounding France, such as Germany, were built up. The placement of power within Germany backfired on Europe during WW2.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought between France (under the rule of Napoleon) and the Seventh Coalition. The Seventh Coalition was an army comprised of different European countries formed after Napoleon's return to power. Napoleon lost the battle and was exiled to St Helena, where he died of stomach cancer.
San Martin leads an army into Chile and wins independence from Spain.
The Factory Act was put in place to improve the lives of workers. It restricted working age and hours but it did not become effective until many years later.
Venezuela gains independence from Spain.
Took away the chance for European countries to gain colonies in North America
Hurbide declares Mexican independence from Spain.
The creoles demand independence from Dom Pedro and he agrees.
In 1821, the Greeks demanded independence from the Ottomans. Although they were not a fan of rebellion, Britain, France, and Russia sign a treaty guaranteeing Greek independence.
The completion of the Liverpool to Manchester railroad boosted industrialization in Europe and around the world because railroads made transportation easier.
King Charles X of France tried to return France to an absolute monarchy, but leaves after his actions spark riots. He is replaced by Louis Philippe.
Because the Ottoman Empire allied with other European countries such as England, their weakness was exposed. Although they won the war, it was an overall negative event for the Ottoman Empire because the European powers realized that the Ottomans could easily be overthrown.
The Treaty of Kanagawa was a trade agreement between Japan and the United States. This caused European countries to push for trade agreements with Japan, which brought Japan out of isolation.
Alexander II took over Russia and began creating reforms to modernize Russia. In 1881 he is assassinated.
The Japanese ruler Mutsuhtio decided to refer to his rule as Meiji, meaning enlightened rule. During his rule, Japan modernized their army and their economy.
In order to gain the Southern German states, Bismark creates a rumor that the French ambassador insulted the Prussian King. This causes France to declare war on Prussia, which causes the Southern German stated to accept Prussian rule. This unifies Germany.
The Russo-Japanese War was a war fought between Japan and Russia over Manchuria. In the end, Japan gained all of their captured territories and Russia was forced out of Korea.
The Treaty of Portsmouth ended the Russo-Japanese war. Teddy Roosevelt helped to draft this agreement. It was signed on a ship just outside of Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
When the Japanese annexed Korea, they ruled with brutal force. They took away many Korean traditions and replaced them with Japanese. They also replaced Korean farmers with Japanese settlers. Although they were aware of the problems in Korea, other major countries chose to ignore them.
The Austrian archduke and his wife are killed by a Serbian, causing Austria to declare war on Serbia. This is what starts WWI