Middle East

Events

Ethiopians invade western Arabia

570

Muhammad born

570

War between Byzantine Empire and Sasanid Persia

603 - 628

First revelations of the Quran to Muhammad

610

Deaths of Khadija and Abu-Talib

619

Hijra of Muhammad ans his associates from Mecca to Medina, where first Muslim umma is formed

622

Muslims defeat pagan Meccans at Battle of Badr

624

Meccan revenge at Battle of Uhud

625

Muslims foil Meccan attack at the Battle of the Trench

627

Hudaybiya truce between Muhammad and Meccan pagans

628

Mecca's pagan leaders accept Islam

630

Arab tribal delegations accept Muhammad as their leader

630 - 632

Muhammad dies

632

Associates choose Abu-Bakr as first caliph

632

Rebellion (ridda) of the Arab tribes

632

Muslim armies crush ridda and finish conquering Arabian Peninsula

633

Muslims defeat Byzantine army and start conquests outside Arabia

634

Umar succeeds Abu-Bakr as caliph

634

Arab victory over Byzantines in Battle of the Yarmuk

636

Battle of Qadisiyah enables Arabs to take Ctesiphon and western Persia from the Sasanids

637

Arabs take Egypt from the Byzantine Empire

639 - 642

Arab garrison towns set up at Basra and Kufa

640

Shura elects Uthman as caliph

644

Umar murdered

644

Death of last Sasanid shah completes Arab conquest of Persia

651

Uthman establishes standard version of the Quran

653

Ali declared caliph

656

Rebels murder Uthman

656

Battle of the Camel opens first civil war (fitna)

656

Mu'awiya challenges Ali at Battle of Siffin

657

Issues later submitted to arbitration

657

Arbitration goes against Ali, who is challenged by Kharijites

659