Historical Timeline of Ancient Israel - Judges to Nehemiah

Drew Morash

Periods

Hauer, Christian E., and William A. Young. An Introduction to the Bible: A Journey Into Three Worlds. Boston: Pearson Education Inc., 2012.

Satterthwaite, Philip E., and J. Gordon McConville. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Historical Books. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2007.

Judges and Tribal Leagues

1200 BCE - 1020 BCE

Unified Kingdom

1020 BC - 922 BC

Neo-Assyrian Empire

934 BC - 610 BC

Divided Kingdom

922 BC - 721 BC

The Judean Kingdom

721 BC - 587 BC

Neo-Babylonian Period

610 BC - 539 BC

Babylonian Exile

587 BC - 539 BC

The Persian Period

539 BC - 333 BC

Monarchs

Harrison, R.K. Old Testament Times. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans , 1970.

Rule of the Judges

Approx. 1200 BC - Approx. 1050 BC

Othniel (40 years)
Judges 3:7-11
Ehud (80 years)
3:12-30
Shamgar (not stated)
3:31
Deborah and Barak (40 years)
4:1-5:31
Gideon (40 years)
5:11-8:29
Abimelech (3 years)
ch.9
Tola (23 years)
10:1-2
Jair (22 years)
10:3-5
Jephthah (6 years)
11:1-12:7
Ibzan (7 years)
12:8-10
Elon (10 years)
12:11-12
Abdon (8 years)
12:13-15
Samson (20 years)
13-16

Saul

Approx. 1050 BC - 1011 BC

David

1011 BC - 971 BC

Solomon

971 BC - 931 BC

Jeroboam I

931 BC - 910 BC

Rehoboam

931 BC - 913 BC

Abijah

913 BC - 911 BC

Asa

911 BC - 870 BC

Nadab

910 BC - 909 BC

Baasha

909 BC - 886 BC

Elah

886 BC - 885 BC

Zimri

885 BC

Zimri ruled for 7 Days

Omri

885 BC - 874 BC

Ahab

874 BC - 853 BC

Jehoshaphat

870 BC - 848 BC

Ahaziah

853 BC - 852 BC

Jehoram (Joram)

852 BC - 841 BC

Jehoram

848 BC - 841 BC

Athaliah

841 BC - 835 BC

Ahaziah

841 BC

Jehu

841 BC - 814 BC

Jehoash

835 BC - 796 BC

Jehoahaz

814 BC - 798 BC

Jehoash

798 BC - 782 BC

Amaziah

796 BC - 767 BC

Jeroboam II

782 Bc - 753 BC

Azariah (Uzziah)

767 BC - 740 BC

Zachariah

753 BC - 752 BC

Shallum

752 BC

Menahem

752 BC - 742 Bc

Pekahiah

742 BC - 740 BC

Jotham

740 BC - 732 BC

Pekah

740 BC - 732 BC

Hoshea

732 BC - 722 BC

Jehoahaz I

732 BC - 716 BC

Shalmaneser V (Assyria)

727 BC - 722 BC

Sargon II (Assyria)

722 BC - 705 BC

Hezekiah

716 BC - 687 BC

Sennacherib of Assyria records an exchange with Hezekiah, the Jew:

"As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke, I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to the countless small villages in his vicinity, and conquered (them)... Himself I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a bird in a cage (288)."

Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Manasseh

687 BC - 642 BC

Amon

642 BC - 640 BC

Josiah

640 Bc - 609 BC

Jehoahaz II

609 BC

Jehoiakim

609 BC - 597 BC

Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylon)

605 BC - 562 BC

Jehoiachin

597 BC

Zedekiah

597 BC - 587 BC

Gedaliah

586 Bc - 582 BC

Events

Merneptah Stele

1220 BC

Oldest known external reference of Israelites in Western Palestine. Erected by Amenhotep III, inscribed by Meneptah in the fifth year of his reign. Marks the beginning of the Tribal League period.

"Israel is desolated, her seed is not... Everyone that is turbulent is bound by king Meneptah."

Harrison, R.K. Old Testament Times. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans , 1970.

Death of Joshua

Approx. 1200 BC

Joshua 24:29

King Solomon Builds the Temple

967 BC

1 Kings 6

Israel is Divided

931 BC

1 Kings 12

Israel is divided into Israel (the Northern Kingdom with the capital city of Samaria), and Judah (the Southern Kingdom with the capital city of Jerusalem).

Black Obelisk

841 BC

King Shalmaneser (Assyria) mentions king Jehu of Israel. Represents an external reference to the N. Kingdom

Satterthwaite, Philip E., and J. Gordon McConville. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Historical Books. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2007.

The Fall of Samaria (And the N. Kingdom)

722 BC

Samaria falls to King Sargon II of Assyria

"At the begi[nning of my royal rule, I... the town of the sama]rians [I besieged, concquered]... [for the god... who le]t me achieve (this) my triumph... I led away prisoners [27,290 inhabitants of it (and) [equipped] from among [them (soldiers to man)] 50 chariots for my royal corps" (284).

Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Prism of Sennacherib

686 BC

Recovered from Nineveh, this stele "records events in the reign of the Assyrian monarch Sennacherib" as he concquered surrounding states.

Page 235. Harrison, R.K. Old Testament Times. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans , 1970.

Fall of Assyria to Babylon

610 BC

YHWH's Temple Destroyed

587 BC

2 Kings 25:9

The Fall of Jerusalem (And the S. Kingdom)

587 BC

Jerusalem falls to King Sennacherib of Babylon

Earliest Plausible Writing of the Deut. History

560 BC

Final recorded event in 2 Kings 25:27-30.

Page 11. Satterthwaite, Philip E., and J. Gordon McConville. Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Historical Books. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2007.

Fall of Babylon to Persia

539 BC

Nehemiah Begins Rebuilding Jerusalem's Wall

444 BC

Nehemiah 2:1-8

Fall of Persia to Greece

330 BC