Interpretation

Events

Set sail

1492

Christopher Columbus set sail and had an Arabic interpreter to communicate with oriental people.

Training interpreters

1502

Training a captive Indian for the job of interpreter. They communicated with signs and gestures.

Shipwrecked in Yucatan

1511

Geronimo de Aguilar had been shipwrecked in Yucatan; he had a shipmate, Gonzalo Guerrero, had survived and made their lives among the Chontal Maya.

Magellan's acquisitions

1511

During the siege of Malaca, Magellan had acquire Entique.

Meeting with Spanish Privy Council

1517

Magellan had travelled back to Europe with his master, was with him at first meeting with Spanish Privy Council in Seville.

Expedition to Mexico

1517

Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba led an expedition to what was to become Mexico.

Julian's return

1518

Julian returned to Yucatan from Cuba under the leadership of Juan de Grijalba.

Marina as interpreter

1519 - 1526

Marina interpreted for Cortes at key points in the conquest of Mexico and its mentioned regularly in the chronicles of these years.

Confirmed status

1519

Marina's status as intermediary between Spaniards and the people of Mexico was confirmed.

La Malinche

1519

A woman known as "La Malinche" was given to Hernan Cortes.

Marina

1519

Marina was one of the twenty women given to Cortes by Chontal-Maya leader on the Tabasco coast.

Return to the coast

1520

Malinche leaves the city with Cortes when he returned to the coast.

Magellan's death

1521

On April 26th, Magellan was killed by Si Lapulapu's fighters.

Dealings with Rajah

1521

Enrique played a key role in similar dealings with Rajah Humabon of Cebu.

Misunderstanding

1521

Enrique did not understand anything said by the natives. However he was able to communicate as Malay was lingua franca of diplomacy.

Negotiations with allies

1521

Cortes negotiates with his allies and their forces return to destroy Tenochtitlan.

Malinche and Juan Camarillo

1525

She fades from the record after reports of her marriage to Juan Camarillo.

Malinche's daughter

1526

Birth of Malinche's daughter, Maria.

Ibrahim's Bey's story

1537

Ibrahim Bey's story is fairly-well documented. He was sold to the Turks by his Tartar kidnappers.

João Rodrigues moves

1577

João Rodrigues starts living in Japan.

João Rodrigues improves

1577

João Rodrigues took his vows.

Exploring North America

1584

Elizabeth I granted Walter Raleigh the right to explore North America.

Philip Amadas as captain

1585

Two ships sailed to America under captain Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow.

Intermediaries roles

1587

Manteo had an important role as intermediary on the English side, appears to have been confirmed by his baptism.

Audience with Toyotomi Hideyoshi

1591

Alessandro Valignano was granted an audience with Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the Japanese ruler.

Negotiations

1593

Negotiations with the Governor of Nagasaki.

San Felipe affair

1597

Troubles with the San Felipe affair.

Executions

1597

The execution of 26 Cristians.

English Settlement

1607

The English Settlement in Jamestown raised to comparable tensions.

Jamestown

1608

Thomas Savage landed in Jamestown.

Jamestown

1609

Henry arrived in Jamestown.

Settlement with Patowomeke people

1614

Spelman settled with the Patowomeke people.

Conflict with priesthood

1614

All priest were expelled.

Governor gets replaced

1619

Henry was accused by fellow-interpreter Robert Poole of denouncing Jamestown's Governor Sir George Yardley and predicting his replacement.

Savage's warning

1622

Savage warned Jamestown's Governor that Wyatt was planning an attack but the Governor did not believed him.

Topaia

1760

Topaia was in member of ruling circle that dealt with visitors.

James Cook and the natives

1768

James Cook had instructions to deal with natives that communicated with friendly signs painting of things and asking what they were.

Topaias discovery

1769

Topaia tried to ease the situation and found their language so near his own he could tolerably well understand them all to keep peace.

Topaia's death

1770

Topaia died.

New Translation Chamber

1833

The authorities established a new Translation Chamber that started training their own Turkish mother-tongue, Muslim dragomans.