The Minoans lived on the island of Crete. They were powerful, seafaring people with a strong navy. Linear A was a written language of the Minoans that hasn’t been translated yet.
Undo-Europeans who settled on the Greek mainland. Capital city: Mycenae. Ruled by warrior kings.
Ends mysteriously in 1450 BC.
Group of people who move into Greece around 1150 BC. Not advanced economy and trade stop. Wedding for the gods.
First known Olympic games, held to honor the gods.
Sparta conquers Messenia and they become Helots.
Messenians revolt against harsh rule. Spartans just barely defeat the revolt. This makes Sparta becomes a strong military state.
Develops legal code based on equality of citizens.
Gets rid of debt slavery and establishes four social classes based on wealth.
Romans overthrow horrible Etruscan king named Tarquin the Proud. Declared never again to be ruled by king.
Reforms the idea of democracy by splitting Athens into ten groups based on where you live. Increase power of the ecclesia. Creates the assembly of Athenian citizens who ran the government.
A war between the Greek city states and the Persian Empire.
25,000 Persians vs. 11,000 Athenians. Pheidippides runs 25 miles.
Battle of Thermopylae. Battle of Artemisia. Battle of Salamis. Delian League.
Politician who lead Athens.
12 Tables- Roman laws carved onto stone tablets.
War breaks out between Athens and Sparta.
Macedonians invade and defeat Greeks ends Greek independence.
Alexander The Great invades Persia. He took the Granicus River in 334 BC.
Alexander the Great invades Issus.
Persia is defeated again, Alexander then captures Babylon, Susa, Persepolis.
Alexander conquers parts of Indus Valley.
3 wars between Rome and Carthage.
Roman general during 2nd Punic War. Outsmarts Hannibal by bringing the war to Carthage. Defeats Hannibal at Battle of Zama.
Caesar declared himself dictator for life.
Ends Roman Republic
“Roman peace”. Rome’s peak.
Falls because it’s weakened by internal conflict and civil wars.
Emperor Nero blamed the Christians.
Law from Emperor Constantine that legalized Christianity.
Writes the Nicaea Creed- Statement of beliefs of the Christian church.
Moves capital to Byzantium but renamed it Constantine-”City of Constantine”.
Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity official religion of the empire.
Inflation, population decline, military turmoil, etc. Germanic tribes pushed into Rome by Huns. Can’t support/fend for itself.