Dorian's move into Greece, culture declines, economy and trade stops.
776 BC was the year where the Olympics were held for the first time. The Olympics were held to honor the gods
Sparta conquers Messenia. Messenians became helots
Messenians revolt against harsh rule
Messenians revolt against harsh rule. Spartans barely hold back the revolt. Sparta learns from this and creates a stronger military
Draco rules over Athens and establishes the draconian law
Solon rules in 594 BC, gets rid of debt slavery. and establishes four social classes
Romans overthrow horrible Etruscan king named Tarquin the Proud. Declare never again to be ruled by a king. Romans establish republic.
Cleisthenes rules in 500 BC, he reforms the idea of democracy by splitting Athens into ten groups based on where you live.
499 BC - 493 BC
Ionian Greek living on coast of Anatolia revolt against Persian taxes.
Battle of Marathon
25,000 Persians vs. 11,000 Athenians. Athenians under command of Miltiades. Persians sail into Athens, see the city defended and leave .Persia defeated at Marathon in 490 BC.
Battle of Salamis
Persians find Athens deserted and set fire to the city Persians then try to attack at Salamis. Naval battle 800 Persian warships vs 380 Greek ships.
Greeks led by Themistocles. Greeks easily defeated Persians.
Athens Golden Age
477 BC - 431 BC
Classical art becomes popular and Architecture becomes different.
Pericles Leads Athens
461 BC - 429 BC
Pericles had 3 goals for Athens
1. Strengthen Athenian democracy- Creates direct democracy
2. Hold and strengthen Athenian “Empire”- Strengthened Athens naval fleet
3. To glorify Athens- Rebuilt Athens
Law in the Early Republic
12 Tables- Roman laws carved onto stone tablets, become basis for Roman law, confirm rights of all free citizens to be protected by law.
431 BC - 404 BC
War breaks out between Athens and Sparta (and their allies) Plague hits Athens and kills 1/3 of the population which eventually led to them surrendering to Sparta.
Battle of Chaerona
Macedonians invade and defeat Greeks. Ends Greek independence.
Alexander the Great invades Persia
334 BC Alexander invades Persia. Granicus River- Alexander’s first major victory against Persians. Starts taking Persian controlled cities one by one.
Alexander takes the Issus River
Alexander conquers the Issus River which damaged the Persian empire severely.
Alexander takes Gaugamela
Alexander takes Gaugamela crippling the Persian empire.
A city is moved
Moves capital to Byzantium but renamed it Constantinople City of Constantine.
Alexander conquers parts of the Indus Valley
Alexander has a battle at the Hydaspes River and wins.
264 BC - 146 BC
3 wars between 264-146 BC between Rome and Carthage.
Battle of Zama
Battle of Zama is the second war in the Punic Wars. In this second war the Carthaginian general Hannibal uses war elephants. Hannibal is annihilating the Romans and Hannibal is going to the city of Rome but before that happens a Roman general named Scipio goes to attack Carthage. Hannibal is defeated at his own city.
Julius is Assassinated
Groups of senators plot Julius' death after fearing his power, led by: Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius Caesar assassinated on the steps of the senate on March 15, 44 BC.
Battle of Actium
civil war ends the Roman republic.
Roman Republic Falls
A series of empires begins when the Roman republic falls.
27 BC - 180 AD
A period of peace and prosperity,
Emperors target Christians
Emperor Nero blamed the Chriistians for creating a fire that created much chaos.
Christianity Official Religion of Rome
Christianity becomes Official Religion of Rome.
Christians were persecuted and killed and at this time they were accepted.