Born at Konigsberg as Johannes Mueller
Translation of Ptolemy's "Almagest" with added later observations of the heavens
Born Torun, Poland
Mathematician and surveyor
Born Knudstrup, Denmark (now Sweden)
Observations on a supernova.
"Introduction to the New Astronomy"
Born near Stuttgart, Germany
"The Mystery of the Universe"
An imaginary line joining the Sun to a planet moving in its orbit around the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
Each planet moves in its own elliptical orbit around the Sun, with the Sun at one of the two foci (the same one for all the planets) of the ellipse.
The squares of the periods of any two planets are proportional to the cubes of their distances from the Sun
"Harmony of the World", referring to the planetary worlds.
Tycho Brahe's precise measurements of the movements of the sun, planets and stars, augmented by Kepler.
Born in Colchester, Essex, England
"Concerning Magnetism, Magnetic Bodies and the Great Magnet Earth", a seminal work in the physics of ferromagnetism.
Re-invented by Hans Lippershey in Holland, Galileo made a vastly superior version within 24 hours of obtaining one. News of Digges' earlier invention had not reached Europe even after all this time.
"The Starry Messenger", covering new observations made with his new telescopes.
Written as part of a riposte to three Jesuit priests' fanciful interpretation of the presence of three comets.
Sums up his life's work on mechanics, inertia, pendulums, the strength of bodies and the scientific method.
Full title "Discours de la Methode pour bien conduire la raison et chercher la Verite dans Les Sciences"
Born at Champtercier, Provence, France
Resolving a problem brought to him by Galileo.
Born in Den Haag, Holland
Completely independently of Galileo.
Born at Arhus, Denmark
Logarithms and spherical geometry
Born at Lismore Castle, County Waterford, Ireland.
Full title: "New Experiments Physico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects"
Applying the scientific method to alchemy and thus beginning modern chemistry.
Born at Castelnuovo, near Naples
"On the Movement of Animals"
Born at Crevalcore, near Bologna, Italy
Published in two letters.
Human beings established as part of the animal kingdom.
Born at Freshwater, Isle of Wight
Robert Hooke's rainbow rings were essentially plagiarised by Isaac Newton and became "Newton's rings".
Book on microscopy with brilliant illustrations.
Forerunner of what became Newton's first law of motion.
Born in Delft, a draper with no formal academic training who made a series of astounding discoveries with simple microscopes that he designed and built himself.
Born at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England
This paper provided the mathematical proof of why orbiting bodies move in an elliptical path, as observed by Kepler.
Written 30 years previously but held back from publication by Newton in order to avoid claims (with considerable substance) from Robert Hooke that much of the foundation work was done by him.
Born at Haggerston, Shoreditch, England
Compiled from observations made on St Helena in 1676.
Born at Denby, Derbyshire, England
The most accurate catalogue of its time.
Born in Bordeaux, France, of Scottish extract.
Presented to the Glasgow University Philosophical Club but never formally published.
Born at Greenock, Clydeside, Scotland
Born at Fieldhead, near Leeds, Yorkshire.
Carl Scheele (Sweden) made the same discovery 2 years earlier but did not publish his findings until 1777.
Scheele appears to have discovered oxygen 2 years before Joseph Priestley in England, but as he did not publish his findings until 1777, it is Priestley who is generally given the credit for this example of parallel discovery.
Born in Nice, France
Cavendish measured to density to within 99% of the latest modern estimate.
Born in he Marais, Paris.
Died on the guillotine during "The Terror".
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed.
Born Brussels, Flanders
Inspired by Galen, AD 130
Succeeded Fallopio as professor of anatomy at University of Padua
Born Aquapendent, Italy
Born Folkestone, Kent, England
The circulation of the blood.
Born at Black Notley in Essex.
Joint work with Francis Willughby
Published under the name of Francis Willughby but in fact largely the work of John Ray, his colleague
Born at South Rashult, southern Sweden.
Ten editions were produced over this period, all containing new material on the classification of living things.
Born at Montbard, near Dijon, Burgundy.
The last 8 volumes published posthumously, this covers the whole of natural history, summarising all Western knowledge of the subject at that time.
Born in Montbeliard, then an independent principality on the border of France and Switzerland,
First storage of large quantities of electricity
Torsion balance experiments show that magnetic and electrical forces both obey an inverse square law.
Born at Bologna
Discoverer of bioelectricity
Based on experiments with frog's legs
Born at Como
Professor of Experimental Physics, Pavia University
Born Groningen, Netherlands but became Swiss
Mathematician who described the behaviour of liquids and gases in terms of the impact of atoms on the walls of their container.
Book on hydrodynamics based on the principle of conservation of energy
Soldier turned scientist
Major advance on Newtonian mechanics. "Action" - the property of a body in terms of its changing position and its momentum, which in nature is always a minimum of the possible alternatives. E.g. the reason why light travels in straight lines.
Born at Byers Green, Co. Durham
The Sun is part of a disc of stars
Born at Hanover, lived in England
Born in Nottinghamshire
Good friend of Henry Cavendish. Established that earthquakes originate in the Earth's crust, not due to atmospheric disturbances.
Born near Caen, Calvados region of Normandy
Polymath. The "French Newton".
Discovery of the 929-year orbitary cycle of Jupiter and Saturn
Lays down many fundamental results in statistics
Born at Woburn, Massachusetts
Later moved to England and became Count Rumford.
Discovery that friction generates heat and thus that the caloric model of heat (as a kind of fluid within an object) was incorrect. Later developments by others led to the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Born at Edinburgh
Hutton was also a naturalist and chemist.
The book was difficult to read but carefully argued
Masterly, clear summary of Hutton's work that was very influential.
Born near Dundee
Strong supporter of Hutton and Playfair about uniformitarianism in geology and close friend of Charles Darwin
Born at Shrewsbury