Avanti! (meaning "Forward!" in English) is an Italian daily newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party,
Italy attacks the Austro-Hungrain Empire over the Dolomites and suffers heavy losses and doesn't make much progress heavy fight till the end of the war
During the treaty of London the Italians were ignored and Fiume, a port city was given to the the Yugoslavian state. = angry itailan nationalist and poet Gabriele D’Annunzi. In Venice. So he organized an agitational group, whose motto was “Either Fiume or Death. On 12 September, 1919, together a small army he had gathered together in Venice and with the complicity of the Italian army stationed in Istria, he seized Fiume before it could be transferred to Yugoslavia. He was ousted in Dec 1920 by the Italian government. Annunizo was a competitor to Mussolini and was now weakend
One of 35 fasicists elected to parliament (went from 4,800 votes in 1919 to 125,000 in 1921
On 24 October 1922, Mussolini declared before 60,000 people at the Fascist Congress in Naples: "Our program is simple: we want to rule Italy. eanwhile, the Blackshirts, who had occupied the Po plain, took all strategic points of the country. On 26 October, former prime minister Antonio Salandra warned current Prime Minister Luigi Facta that Mussolini was demanding his resignation and that he was preparing to march on Rome. However, Facta did not believe Salandra and thought that Mussolini would govern quietly at his side. To meet the threat posed by the bands of fascist troops now gathering outside Rome, Luigi Facta (who had resigned but continued to hold power) ordered a state of siege for Rome. On 28 October, the King handed power to Mussolini, who was supported by the military, the business class, and the right-wing. The Duce stayed behind for most of the march, if things went bad he would flee to Switzerland. The march itself was composed of fewer than 30,000 men. Mussolini became the new PM of Italy
On August 27, 1923 the Italian general Enrico Tellini, two of his aides, their interpreter and a chauffeur fell into an ambush and were assassinated by unknown assailants at the border crossing of Kakavia, which is near the town of Ioannina, within Greek territory. Upon news of the murder, anti-Greek demonstrations broke out in Italy
Italy sent an ultimatum to Greece on August 29, 1923, demanding: (1) a complete official apology at the Italian legation in Athens, (2) a solemn funeral in the Catholic cathedral in Athens in the presence of all the Greek government, (3) military honours for the bodies of the victims, (4) full honours by the Greek fleet to the Italian fleet which would be sent to Piraeus, (5) capital punishment for the guilty, (6) an indemnity of 50 million lire within five days of receipt of the note and (7) a strict inquiry, to be carried out quickly with the assistance of the Italian military attaché. and must rely in 24 hours
Greece replied to Italy on August 30, 1923, accepting four of the demands
Mussolini and the Italian cabinet were not satisfied with the reply of the Greek government and declared that it was unacceptable.On August 31, 1923, a squadron of the Italian Navy bombarded the Greek island of Corfu and landed 5000 troops. On September 1, Greece appealed to the League of Nations.
On September 8 the Conference of Ambassadors announced to both Greece and Italy, as well as to the League of Nations, the terms upon which the dispute should be settled.
The decision was that:
In Italy everyone was satisfied with the Conference's decision and praised Mussolini
fascist win 66% of the vote
Socialist leader Matteotti is murdered and many blame Mussolini and the opposition walks out of parliament
Stands up to Hilter and supports Austrian indepence
Italian troops sent to help Franco in Spain,
fascism: Corporatism. The practical work of creating Italian fascist syndicates and corporations began immediately after Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922. Italian industrial employers initially refused to cooperate in mixed syndicates or in a single confederation of corporations
Mussolini gets Emergency powers for 1 year
The majority party would receive 2/3 of the seats in parliament
Censorship introduced and opposition party meeting were banned
The Battle for Grain was an economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920s as a move toward autarky
The policy had a number of aims. These comprised:
The policy had both positive and negative effects for Italy. On the positive side, cereal production doubled from 1922 to 1939 and by 1940 they had become more or less self-sufficient at cereal production; wheat imports went down by 75% in the years 1925-1935. The increased protection on Italian crops was a benefit to the farmers and grain producers, especially the inefficient landowners in the poor south who were offered a guaranteed price for their crops.
However the rearing of animals and growing of vines (other vital aspects of agriculture) did not happen as much as a result of the focus on grain. The self-sufficiency did not stretch to fertilizers and this was a problem in World War II when imports of natural and chemical fertilizers were cut. The cost of bread to the everyday Italian rose sharply and the quality of their diet was reduced.
under pressure from hitler Anti-Jewish laws passed
Il Popolo d'Italia ("The People of Italy"), was an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914, after his split from the Italian Socialist Party.
Il Popolo d'Italia ran from November 15, 1914 until July 24, 1943 and became the foundation for the Fascist movement in Italy after World War I
The Italian Fasci of Combat until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy. Its members were distinguished by their black uniforms (modelled on those of the Arditi, Italy's elite troops of World War I) and their loyalty to Benito Mussolini, the Duce (leader) of Fascism, to whom they swore an oath.
In April 1925, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini agreed to the Fascist unions’ demands to set up the OND. The trade unions initially saw the provision of leisure facilities for workers as a way to compete with the Socialists, who already had a network of cultural organizations. The OND originally had an apolitical and productivist image, helping it gain the support of employers. There was nothing "inherently fascist" about the OND and it had been modelled on institutions like the YMCA. However, in April 1927 Augusto Turati, the Fascist party Secretary, dismissed Giani and became OND leader, turning the OND into an auxiliary of the party.
In the 1930s under the direction of Achille Starace the OND became primarily recreational, concentrating on sports and other outings. It is estimated that by 1936 the OND had organized 80% of salaried workers. Nearly 40% of the industrial workforce had been recruited into the Dopolavoro by 1939 and the sports activities proved popular with large numbers of workers. The OND had the largest membership of any of the mass Fascist organizations in Italy.
New secret police
Ministry of popular culture set up to create propaganda
In April 1915 Italians are not originally part and wanted to remain peace full but then Britan and France convieced Italy to join in the treaty of London. The treaty promised the fulfillment of its national dream: control over territory on its border with Austria-Hungary stretching from Trentino through the South Tyrol to Trieste. In the treaty, the Allies gave them that and more, including parts of Dalmatia and numerous islands along Austria-Hungary’s Adriatic coast; the Albanian port city of Vlore (Italian: Valona) and a central protectorate in Albania; and territory from the Ottoman Empire. The Britain and France would break their promise