Italy (Mussolini)

Events

Becomes the editor of Avanti

1912

Avanti! (meaning "Forward!" in English) is an Italian daily newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party,

italy joins WWI

May 23, 1915

Italy attacks the Austro-Hungrain Empire over the Dolomites and suffers heavy losses and doesn't make much progress heavy fight till the end of the war

D'Annunzio seized Fiume

September 12, 1919 - December 1, 1920

During the treaty of London the Italians were ignored and Fiume, a port city was given to the the Yugoslavian state. = angry itailan nationalist and poet Gabriele D’Annunzi. In Venice. So he organized an agitational group, whose motto was “Either Fiume or Death. On 12 September, 1919, together a small army he had gathered together in Venice and with the complicity of the Italian army stationed in Istria, he seized Fiume before it could be transferred to Yugoslavia. He was ousted in Dec 1920 by the Italian government. Annunizo was a competitor to Mussolini and was now weakend

Mussolini elected to Parliment

1921

One of 35 fasicists elected to parliament (went from 4,800 votes in 1919 to 125,000 in 1921

The March on Rome

October 27 1922 - October 29 1922

On 24 October 1922, Mussolini declared before 60,000 people at the Fascist Congress in Naples: "Our program is simple: we want to rule Italy. eanwhile, the Blackshirts, who had occupied the Po plain, took all strategic points of the country. On 26 October, former prime minister Antonio Salandra warned current Prime Minister Luigi Facta that Mussolini was demanding his resignation and that he was preparing to march on Rome. However, Facta did not believe Salandra and thought that Mussolini would govern quietly at his side. To meet the threat posed by the bands of fascist troops now gathering outside Rome, Luigi Facta (who had resigned but continued to hold power) ordered a state of siege for Rome. On 28 October, the King handed power to Mussolini, who was supported by the military, the business class, and the right-wing. The Duce stayed behind for most of the march, if things went bad he would flee to Switzerland. The march itself was composed of fewer than 30,000 men. Mussolini became the new PM of Italy

Corfu insident

August 1923 - September 1923

On August 27, 1923 the Italian general Enrico Tellini, two of his aides, their interpreter and a chauffeur fell into an ambush and were assassinated by unknown assailants at the border crossing of Kakavia, which is near the town of Ioannina, within Greek territory. Upon news of the murder, anti-Greek demonstrations broke out in Italy
Italy sent an ultimatum to Greece on August 29, 1923, demanding: (1) a complete official apology at the Italian legation in Athens, (2) a solemn funeral in the Catholic cathedral in Athens in the presence of all the Greek government, (3) military honours for the bodies of the victims, (4) full honours by the Greek fleet to the Italian fleet which would be sent to Piraeus, (5) capital punishment for the guilty, (6) an indemnity of 50 million lire[29][30] within five days of receipt of the note and (7) a strict inquiry, to be carried out quickly with the assistance of the Italian military attaché. and must rely in 24 hours

Greece replied to Italy on August 30, 1923, accepting four of the demands
Mussolini and the Italian cabinet were not satisfied with the reply of the Greek government and declared that it was unacceptable.On August 31, 1923, a squadron of the Italian Navy bombarded the Greek island of Corfu and landed 5000 troops. On September 1, Greece appealed to the League of Nations.
On September 8 the Conference of Ambassadors announced to both Greece and Italy, as well as to the League of Nations, the terms upon which the dispute should be settled.

The decision was that:

  1. the Greek Fleet shall render a salute of 21 guns at Piraeus to the Italian Fleet, which will enter the port, followed by French and British warships, which shall be included in the salute
  2. a funeral service shall be attended by the Greek Cabinet,
  3. military honours shall be rendered to the slain upon embarkation at Preveza,
  4. Greece shall deposit 50,000,000 lire in a Swiss bank as a guarantee,
  5. the highest Greek military authority must apologise to the British, French, and Italian representatives at Athens,
  6. there shall be a Greek inquiry into the murders, which must be supervised by a special international commission presided over by the Japanese Lieutenant-Colonel Shibuya, who was a military attaché of the Japanese embassy, and which must be completed by September 27,
  7. Greece must guarantee the commission's safety and defray its expenses and
  8. the conference requested the Greek Government to communicate its complete acceptance immediately, separately, and simultaneously to the British, French, and Italian representatives at Athens.
  9. In addition, the conference requested the Albanian Government to facilitate the commission's work in Albanian territory.

In Italy everyone was satisfied with the Conference's decision and praised Mussolini

Italy Claims Fiume

jan 1924

Fascist win election

april 1924

fascist win 66% of the vote

Matteotti's murder

June 10 1924

Socialist leader Matteotti is murdered and many blame Mussolini and the opposition walks out of parliament

Mussoline supports Austrian indepence

July 1934

Stands up to Hilter and supports Austrian indepence

Italian troops sent to Spain

July 1936

Italian troops sent to help Franco in Spain,

Withdraw from league

dec 1937

Italy invades Albania

april 1939

Italy joins the war

june 1940

Wars

World War I

1914 - 1918

Invasion of Abyssinia

10/1935 - 5/1936

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

World war 2

1939 - 1945

Policies

Cooperate state

1922

fascism: Corporatism. The practical work of creating Italian fascist syndicates and corporations began immediately after Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922. Italian industrial employers initially refused to cooperate in mixed syndicates or in a single confederation of corporations

Mussolini gets Emergency powers for 1 year

Nov. 1922

Mussolini gets Emergency powers for 1 year

Acerbo Laws

July 1923

The majority party would receive 2/3 of the seats in parliament

Censorship introduced

July 1924

Censorship introduced and opposition party meeting were banned

Battle for Grain

oct 1925

The Battle for Grain was an economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920s as a move toward autarky
The policy had a number of aims. These comprised:

  1. to boost cereal production to make Italy self-sufficient in grain
  2. to reduce the balance of trade deficit
  3. to lower the necessity for foreign imports of bread
  4. to show Italy as a major power

The policy had both positive and negative effects for Italy. On the positive side, cereal production doubled from 1922 to 1939 and by 1940 they had become more or less self-sufficient at cereal production; wheat imports went down by 75% in the years 1925-1935. The increased protection on Italian crops was a benefit to the farmers and grain producers, especially the inefficient landowners in the poor south who were offered a guaranteed price for their crops.

However the rearing of animals and growing of vines (other vital aspects of agriculture) did not happen as much as a result of the focus on grain. The self-sufficiency did not stretch to fertilizers and this was a problem in World War II when imports of natural and chemical fertilizers were cut. The cost of bread to the everyday Italian rose sharply and the quality of their diet was reduced.

Opposition parties and strikes banned

1926

Law passed giving Mussolini right to pass Decrees

jan 1926

Reforms to change Italians behaviors

1938

Anti-Jewish laws passed

July 1938

under pressure from hitler Anti-Jewish laws passed

Organizations

Expelled from PSI (Italian Socialist Party)

1914

Mussolini creates Il Popolo d'Italia

1914

Il Popolo d'Italia ("The People of Italy"), was an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914, after his split from the Italian Socialist Party.
Il Popolo d'Italia ran from November 15, 1914 until July 24, 1943 and became the foundation for the Fascist movement in Italy after World War I

Italian Combat Leagues Formed

march 1919

The Italian Fasci of Combat until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914

PNF founded

November 9, 1921

The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).

Creation of the MVSN (Black Shirts)

March 23, 1923

The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy. Its members were distinguished by their black uniforms (modelled on those of the Arditi, Italy's elite troops of World War I) and their loyalty to Benito Mussolini, the Duce (leader) of Fascism, to whom they swore an oath.

Fascist Grand Council founded

dec 1923

Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro Set up

May 1925

In April 1925, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini agreed to the Fascist unions’ demands to set up the OND. The trade unions initially saw the provision of leisure facilities for workers as a way to compete with the Socialists, who already had a network of cultural organizations. The OND originally had an apolitical and productivist image, helping it gain the support of employers. There was nothing "inherently fascist" about the OND and it had been modelled on institutions like the YMCA. However, in April 1927 Augusto Turati, the Fascist party Secretary, dismissed Giani and became OND leader, turning the OND into an auxiliary of the party.

In the 1930s under the direction of Achille Starace the OND became primarily recreational, concentrating on sports and other outings. It is estimated that by 1936 the OND had organized 80% of salaried workers. Nearly 40% of the industrial workforce had been recruited into the Dopolavoro by 1939 and the sports activities proved popular with large numbers of workers. The OND had the largest membership of any of the mass Fascist organizations in Italy.

Formation OVRA

1926

New secret police

Fascist Youth Groups Created

april 1926

Ministry of Cooperation founded

July 1926

Ministry of popular culture

may 1937

Ministry of popular culture set up to create propaganda

Treaties

Treaty of London

April 26, 1915

In April 1915 Italians are not originally part and wanted to remain peace full but then Britan and France convieced Italy to join in the treaty of London. The treaty promised the fulfillment of its national dream: control over territory on its border with Austria-Hungary stretching from Trentino through the South Tyrol to Trieste. In the treaty, the Allies gave them that and more, including parts of Dalmatia and numerous islands along Austria-Hungary’s Adriatic coast; the Albanian port city of Vlore (Italian: Valona) and a central protectorate in Albania; and territory from the Ottoman Empire. The Britain and France would break their promise

Axis agreement between Rome & Berlin

1/11/1936

Anti-commintern Pact w/ Japan Germany

November 25th 1936

pact of steel

may 1939