Smei

Events

End of WWII

1945

At the Yalta Summit Europe was divided into spheres of influence

European Union of federalists

1946

founded from the wartime movements

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

The US will help any country that is under communist threat but wants to escape

Marshall Plan

June 1947

offer of financial aid to Europe from the US to reconstruct the economy. European States accepted the offer and the year after organized the Organization for european co-operation ( OEEC)

The Hague Congress + CoE

May 1948

the Council pf Europe was created--> no federation

International Authority for the Ruhr ( IAR)

1949

NATO (north atlantic treaty)

1949

mutual defense pact

Korean War

1950 - 1953

it gave start to the tension because North korea 8 communist) invaded south korea ( capitalist) and therefor in europe the threat of an invasion from eastern germane to western germany started

Schuman Plan

9 May 1950

a lot of topics were touched upon
- German Problem
- Coal Pooling between France and Germany to reduce the chance of another war
--> germany wanted international acceptance + getting rid of the IAR
- National positions
--> role of US
- Gave ultimatum to Germany
Uk refused to take part--> not interested in Getting part of the ECSC

Pleven Plan

09/1950

for a European Defense community ( EDC) --> governments weren't ready to give up sovereignty and therefore if failed ( together with EPC)

ECSC

1951

Common Market and pooling of coal and steal

EDC and EPC

1952

The theory of an european defense community was put in practice in 1952 and was actually signed but never ratified by the states. the Draft of the EPC was refused and vetoed by France

Treaty of Brussels

1955

Creation of the Western European Union

Messina Conference

1955

development of a common market
France was put under pressure to accept it, plus france had problems with
- Algeria
-Suez
-Hungary
France needed agricultural policy, colonies and atomic energy

Treaty of Rome

1957

EEC + Euratom

Economy goes down because of de gaulle

1961 - 1966

Fouchet plan from De Gaulle

1961

agreement on operation in foreign policy which he believed france could dominate

I Crisis provoked by de gaulle

1963

He vetoed the application of Britain because he was afraid that accepting the membership of a super power, would have set the necessities of france aside.

Empty Chair Crisis

30 June 1965 - January 1966

France just didn't take part to the council of europe

Luxemburg compromise

1966

france demanded that there would be no transition to majority voting in the council of ministers.
- right of veto when nation interest at stake

the hague summit

1969

the council declared the objectives of
-Completion--> meant to tying up the outstanding businesses from 65s crisis moving the EC budget from national contributions to a system financing its own resources
- Widening--> opening negotiations with britain and other applicants
- deeping--> taking further steps into the process of integration

Dark Ages of European integration

1969 - 1979

direct elections in EP

1979

British Budget Rebate

1980

Margaret Thatcher

southern enlargement

1981

greece 1981
Portugal and Spain 1986

Fountainbleu

1984

european council met and solved the british question in an agreement to cut back on agricultural expenditure and to increase community's own resources

New commission J. delors president

1985

white paper on completion of internal market
-idea of SEA
- ERTI ( european round table of industrialists)
-Mitteroult/kohl
-Problem facing US and Japan--> too advanced in technology

European Single Act ( SEA)

1987

in the european council of 1985--> completion of single market --> removal of trade barriers and institutional reform as a consequence of fountainbleu
in 1987 SEA--> promoted an institutional reform -> QMV in the council and more legislative power EP + commission--> Delors

Idea of EMU

1987

Fall of communism + fall of the Berlin Wall

1989

Start of the intergovernmental attitude in EU integration

1992 - 1998

Recession caused by the Reunification of Germany

1992 - 1995

brought to a lack of trust in the powers of the EU

Maastricht Treaty /TEU

1992

Three pillars of EU were defined
- European Community--> treaty of rome and SEA + single market+ democratization of institutions+ european citizenship+ economic and monetary union
- Common Foreign and security policy--> common foreign policy
- Justice and home affairs

IGC --> ratification of the TEU

1996

enlargment 20+
- size of the commission
-size of the EP
- Presidency of the council
-Weighted QMV

Amsterdam Treaty

1997

extension of the QMV

Commission Fraud Santer

1999

3 majority systems

Laeken declaration on the future of europe

2002

prepares for the EU constitution and for the revival of european integration

Constitution for EU

2004

Membership of 10 eastern states after the fall of tito

Referendum--> rejection of the constitutional treaty

2005

revival failed

Romania and Bulgary

2007

Beginning of Eurocrisis

2009

Greece declares the real debt

Lisbon treaty

2009

takes effect
- Established president of EU Council ( Von Rampuy) and High representative for foreign affairs ( Ashton)

Nobel price to eu

2012

Cameron Promises a referendum on Brexit

2013

Rfugee crisis

2015 - 2017