Rise of Nationalism in Europe


Greek War of Independence

1821 - 1832

-Part of Ottoman Empire since 15th century.
-Got support from other Greeks living in exile and West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.
-Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European Civilization, mobilized public opinion to support struggle against a Muslim Empire.
-English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824.

Death of Lord Byron


Organised funds and went to fight in the war, where he died of fever.

Armed rebellion against Russian rule in Poland


-Lang. played an imp. role in developing nationalist sentiments.
-After Russian occupation, Polish was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
-1831 Armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed.
-Many members of the clergy in Poland began usin lang. as a weapon of national resistance.
-Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instructions - large no. of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia as a punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian.
-Karol Kurpinski celebrated national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
-Use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

Treaty Of Constantinople


End of Greek War of Independence.

Silesian Weavers Uprising


Weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drstically reduced their payments

Nationalist Tensions In the Balkans

Approx. 1871 - Approx. 1914

-Region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising of - Romania, Bulgaria Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia. Inhabitants broadly known as Slavs.
-Large part under the Ottoman Empire. Spread of romantic nationalism here and the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
-Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernization and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away and declared independence.
-The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they were once Independent.
-The Balkans were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.
-There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might.
-Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary - were keen on countering the hold of other's powers over the Balkans and extending their own control over the area.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to Disaster.


French Revolution


Napoleonic Code


-did away with all privileges based on birth
-established equality before law
-secured right to property
-simplified administrative divisions
-abolished feudal system
-freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues
-guild restrictions were removed in towns
-Transport and Coms were Imp.
-Common National currency and standardized weights

Treaty of Vienna


-Hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich
-Bourbon dynasty was restored to power
-France lost territories it had annexed under Napoleon
-States were setup on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
-Netherlands(included Belgium) : North, Genoa added to Piedmont in South
- Prussia given imp. territories on its western frontiers and a portion of Saxony. German confederation of 39 states (setup by Naapoleon) left untouched.
-Austria given control of Northern Italy.
-Russia given part of Poland

The July Revolution

July 1830

-The Bourbon Kings were overthrown by liberal revolutionaries who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
-Metternich once remarked,"when France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold".
-Sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands.

February Revolt


-Food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.
-Barricades were erected and Louis Philippe was forced to flee.
-A National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work.
-National workshops to provide employment were set up.


Giuseppe Mazzini

1807 - 1848

-Born In Genoa in 1807
-Became member of secret society of Carbonari.
-Was sent into exile in 1831 (he was 24) for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
-Founded Young Italy in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne.
-Believed that God intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. Italy couldn't be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
-His relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.
-Metternich described his as 'the most dangerous enemy of our social order'.

Unification Of Italy

1859 - 1870

-Italy was divided into 7 states. Only 1, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely House.
-North was under Austrian Habsburgs, Center was ruled by the Pope and Southern regions were under Bourbon Kings of Spain.
-Chief Minister Cavour, who led the movement, was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Spoke french better than Italian.
-Tactful diplomatic alliance with France, Sardinia Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian Forces in 1859.
-Large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray.
-1860, they marched into South Italy and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.
-1861, Victor Emanuel II was proclaimed king of United Italy.

Defeated Austrian forces


Victor Emmanuel crowned king of Italy


Prussian Empire/ Germany

Formation of Zollverein or customs union


-Abolished Trade Barriers
-Reduces no. of currencies from over 30 to 2
-Creation of railways further stimulated mobility
-cloth measurement elle

Frankfurt Parliament

18 May 1848

-Large number of political associations (consisting of middle class professionals, businessmen and artisans) came together came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all- German National Assembly.
-831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to tak etheir places in the Frankfurt Parliament in the Church of St. Paul.
-They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
-When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, he rejected and joined other monarchs and Junkers(large landowners) to oppose the elected assembly.
The middle class resisted the support of workers and artisans and lost their support.
-In the end troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.

Unification Of Germany

1866 - 1871

-Otto Von Bismarck (the chief minister), was the Architect of this process carried out with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- 3 wars over 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France - ended in Prussian victory.
- On 18 January 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including chief minister Otto Von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the German Empire headed by Kaiser Williams I of Prussia.

Kaiser Williams I proclaimed King of Germany

18th January 1871

United Kingdom

English Parliament seizes power from Monarchy


Unification of UK

1707 - 1801

The symbols of the New Britain - The British flag : The Union Jack, The National Anthem : God Save Our Noble King, The English language - were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union

The Act of Union


-Between Scotland and England - 'United Kingdom of Great Briton'
-The British Parliament was dominated by English members
-Scotland's distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
-Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression.
-Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.

Failed revolt by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen


Ireland forcibly incorporated into UK


-Divided between Catholics and Protestants.
-England helped the Protestants to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.
-Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed.
-After a failed revolt by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into United Kingdom.