Osman, a very successful amir, began the Ottoman Empire in 1299. The empire started out with a very strong military, and because of this the empire was able to expand and conquer large amounts of land before their demise in 1922.
At the beginning of the dynasty, ruler Hongwu began reforming China by promoting agriculture and a return to Confucianism. In 1404, admiral Zheng He launched 7 voyages that explored the world before China closed itself off.
A great ruler who, during his time, conquered the Moscow area, liberated and centralized the Russian government. His son, Vasily, was also a great ruler and continued in centralizing power.
A period in which individual states were warring
Suleyman the Lawgiver ruled the Ottoman Empire for 46 years. During his rule he dominated the Mediterranean and Northern Africa. Suleyman also created law codes and limited taxes.
Also known as Ivan the Terrible. During his rule Russia was fighting within itself, but at 16 he declared himself czar and ended the fighting by marrying Anastasia Romanov. His rule can be divided into two periods, called the good and the bad.
During the good period land was added to Russia, there was a code of laws, and Ivan IV ruled justly.
Akbar ruled the Ottoman empire from 1556-1605. During his rule he recognized that his strength was in military, and created an effective tax policy used today, called graduated income tax.
The Bad Period started with Ivan IV's wife dying, for which he blamed on the boyars. He then created a police force designed to punish those who he thought opposed him. In 1581, he killed his oldest son and then in 1584 he dies. There is a period of time where there are incompetent rulers and many struggles for power until the Romanovs come into control. They rule from 1613-1917.
Ieyasu unified all of Japan and moved the capital to present-day Tokyo and introduced the Shogunate Age, which lasted for about 300 years.
Sha Jahan's rivalry with family members over power results in a cultural hate for the Sikhs that still exists today.
The Dutch East India Company controlled Indonesian Islands. The Dutch actually moved into Indonesia and created a rigid social class system with them at the top, wealthy and educated Indonesians in the middle, and plantation workers at the bottom. They forced farmers to make 1/5 of their crops go towards export goods.
In 1757, the British East India Company was established. The company ruled over India for the next 100 years. The company was regulated by British officials, but was staffed by Indian soldiers, called Sepoys. During British rule, India's trade increased, specifically opium to China due to the high profit.
During the 1840's an anti-Christian, Vietnamese emperor was in rule. Seven French missionaries were killed and the French were encouraged to intervene. The outcome resulted in France gaining control of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.
The British established a port in Singapore, and when workers were needed they encouraged Chinese citizens to immigrate to Malaysia. Malaysians quickly became the minority in their own country. Conflict between these two groups still exists today.
In 1880, a mere 10% of Africa was controlled by European powers. This soon increased after many explorers went into Africa and discovered the land's riches. Belgium was among the first to claim land in Africa. Out of the desire for control over land two types of control came out of this, direct and indirect.
Fourteen nations met in order to prevent conflict over African land. These nations ultimately decided that in order to claim land you would have to show that you could control it. Land was then divided without regard to the different ethnic groups living in the areas.
With the help of Menelik II, Ethiopia was able to not be taken over by European powers. He used the Italians, British, and French against each other while strengthening his own people. In 1896, at the Battle of Adowa, Menelik's forces were able to defeat the Italians and keep their nation for themselves.
In 1914, Britain had control over southern Nigerian land, which they acquired through diplomatic and military means. Citizens' opinions of this new rule were divided, which led to rebellions. The British, of course, had to forcefully put down the rebellions and eventually succeeded in taking northern Nigerian land.
The Renaissance was a period of rebirth and advancement for European countries. It can be characterized by the creation of theater, technological advances, art and literature, and science. The Renaissance first occurred in Northern Italy.
A war between France and England which resulted in the Elizabethan Age, or a renaissance in England.
After the end of the war, merchants were now spending money on the arts. (Important artists of the Italian Renaissance are Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael.) (Important techniques are humanism and realism.)
After the Crusades, European countries wanted luxuries, such as spices. Soon, rulers wanted to gain control over the selling of spices, but due to Muslims and Italians controlling majority of the trade routes, they were forced to find different routes. This led to exploring in order to find water routes.
German inventor, Johannes Gutenberg, invented the printing press. This invention increased the sharing and spreading of information.
Spain and Portugal were in conflict over the Indian Ocean trade route. The Treaty of Tordesillas stated that there would be a line drawn running north to south in the Atlantic Ocean. Spain gained control of everything to the west of the line and Portugal gained control of everything to the east.
Four causes of the reformation were humanism and secularism, monarchs didn't like the power of the church and Pope, many were jealous of the church's wealth, and there were corrupt church leaders.
Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses, which called out the corruption of the church. Luther was then excommunicated by Pope Leo 10.
An act of parliament that recognized King Henry VIII as the head of the church. Since King Henry VIII was Protestant, Catholicism was banned during his rule.
The Counter Reformation began with the Council of Trent, which was a meeting of high ranking officials who tried to stop the reformation.
The Peace of Augsburg stated that princes were allowed to choose whatever religion they wanted for their land.
Queen Elizabeth I's rule ended the reformation and ushered in the Elizabethan Age.
The 30 Years war was divided into two sections: the Hapsburg Triumphs and Defeats. During the first 12 years of the war were the triumphs and the Hapsburgs had 125,000 troops. In the later years France joins sides with Protestants against the Hapsburgs.
Parliament asks Charles I, the ruler of England at the time, to sign a document that stated there would be no imprisonment without due cause, Parliament approves taxes, soldiers can not live in civilian houses, and there would be no martial law in times of peace.
In 1637, Charles I tried to have all of his subjects follow one religion. This would force the Scotts to be Protestant. Because of this the Scotts created an army to oppose Charles I, who in turn tried to create an opposing army, but couldn't after Parliament refused him. Charles I did not accept this and tried to arrest Parliament leaders. When he failed to do so, citizens then either sided with Parliament or the king. In the end, Parliament won and a king was executed for the first time in history.
This treaty ends the 30 Years War. In the end, the Hapsburgs were weakened and as a result France grew stonger.
Enlightenment was a period of time in which people began to turn to logic and reason to explain occurrences. Out of this came people, things, and events such as the Scientific Revolution, Copernicus, Galileo, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton. Famous philosophers of this time include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft.
John Kay invented the flying shuttle which doubled the amount of work a weaver could do in a day.
The Industrial Revolution begins in England in the 1700's. By the 1750's agriculture began to breed animals to be able to produce for a larger population. The revolution was able to occur here because England had a large working population and extensive natural resources. During this time agriculture, textiles, transportation, and transportation improved greatly.
In between 1763 and 1775 Watt's steam engine developed immensely and is probably one of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution.
James Hargreaves invented the spinning wheel, called the Spinning Jenny.
Richard Arkwright invents the water frame which used water power to work the spinning wheels.
In France the population was divided into three estates, with the first two representing the upper and noble class and the third representing the lower working class. The third estate was required to pay majority of the taxes, which were already high. Ideas of revolution had spread and inspired to third estate to demand change.
In Aug 1789, the old Regime in France was over because of the National Assembly. In Sep 1791, a new constitution was created that limited constitutional monarchy. A legislative branch, called the Legislative Assembly, was also created. They could make laws, but only the kind had the power to enforce them. In Apr 1792, France declared war on Austria and Prussia after they demanded that absolute monarchy be returned to France. By Sep 1792, France is a republic and monarchy is now gone from France. In 1793, Louis XIV is executed and power is given to Napoleon Bonaparte.
In 1799, Napoleon begins ruling France as a dictator. During this time there is a war between France and several other countries, but Napoleon is able to convince them to sign a peace treaty by 1802.
As a dictator, Napoleon supported laws that strengthened the government and maintained ideas of revolution. He then created the Napoleonic Code which limited liberty and promoted order.
Soon Napoleon crowned himself emperor and attempted to created a "world empire".
Belgium possessed the natural resources needed to industrialize. When William Cockerill emigrated to Belgium with plans for spinning machinery Belgium's factories were able to improve.
A naval battle in which Napoleon lost. As a result of his loss, the British navy stays among the most powerful for the next 100 years and Napoleon abandoned his plan to invade England.
Napoleon becomes obsessed with defeating the British which becomes nearly impossible to do. Napoleon attempted to invade Russia, which ended up doing more harm than good on his part. After this failed invasion, five countries declare war on France. In the end, Napoleon surrenders and is banished. However, since this is Napoleon Bonaparte he escapes the island he was exiled to and attacks at Waterloo, where he is defeated. He is banished for a second time and dies after six years.
Since Germany possessed the materials needed to industrialize they were able to do so and by the late 1800's they became powerful in terms of both military and industry.
Britain, France, and the Ottomans v. Russia. The Ottomans won with the help of their allies, but Britain and France were able to see how weak the Ottoman Empire actually was. This eventually results in the demise of the Ottoman Empire.
In between this time, Prussia's chancellor, Otto von Bismarck tried to unify Germany and built pacts with several other countries. Bismarck did not trust France and he decided the only way to defeat them was to isolate them. Bismarck made allies with Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Germany.
Wilhelm II forces Bismarck to resign and takes over as kaiser in 1888. Wilhelm did not want to share power and since the army was his countries greatest power, he broke off the treaty with Russia. Russia then joined an alliance with France.
The two sides of this war are the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, and Russia). The war begins when Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after the archduke is assassinated.
In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue. Actually though, Columbus began voyages in search of a water route to find spices. Since navigation was not the best during that time, Columbus ended up landing in the "Americas".
The Transatlantic Slave Trade began in the 1500's, though, numbers really didn't spike until about 1650. Slaves were brought from Africa to the Americas and used for labor in order to produce product that was then sent to European countries. Raw products and goods were given to leaders in African countries in order to keep them cooperating.
In 1587 115 English settlers arrived to Roanoke Island in an attempt to be the first settlement in the new world. James White, a government leader sailed back to England, and upon his return in 1590, discovered that the settlers were all missing. The only things he found were the word "croatoan" scratched onto a fence post and the letters "cro" scratched onto a tree trunk.
Jamestown was the first successful English settlement in the new world. The success of this settlement led to the colonization of North America.
England and France both wanted control over the Ohio River Valley. The English and colonists win the war. After the war, England is in debt from the war and decides to tax the colonists. The colonists were angry because of this which results in a series of events leading up to the American Revolution.
In this battle, the colonists had all of their weapons at Concord and the British found out. As a result, the colonists had to delay them at Lexington and lost there, but by the time the British arrived at Concord the weapons were gone.
For the first time, the colonists began targeting higher ranking war officers.
This battle was the last in the Revolutionary War. The colonists won and this meant that they were now an independent state.
During the early 1800's the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States. This is due to the British blockading U.S. ports during the War of 1812, which forced the U.S. to become self sufficient.
Mexico and the U.S. were in a dispute over the borders of an area of land, called the Nueces Strip. By April of 1846, U.S. troops had invaded this area and fought with Mexican soldiers. War was then declared. This war however was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
The U.S. grew sugar in the Philippines, but because this is the United States we felt the need to betray and take them over. In 1890, the McKinley Tariff Act was in place and it eliminated all tariffs on sugar. This undercut Hawaii's profits and caused the republic to suffer. In 1894, Dole took over Hawaii and by 1898 it was annexed by the U.S.
Amerigo Vespucci sailed to the east coast of South America and discovered that it was a new land. Later in 1507, the land was named after him.
Hernando Cortez, a Spanish conquistador, landed on the southern shores of Mexico in 1519. Spain wanted control of this land, but at the time the Aztecs were there and at large. The emperor of the Aztecs thought that Cortez was a god when he first saw him and offered him riches. In the following years the Aztecs would try to rebel against Spanish control, but by 1521 the Aztecs were conquered.
Pizarro marched 300 of his men into Peru and wiped out 30,000 of the Inca. Their leader was then kidnapped, manipulated by Pizarro and his men, then killed.
Ideas of revolution spread to Haiti. In 1791, about 100,000 slaves, led by Toussaint L'Overture, rose up against French oppression. In 1801, L'Overture tries to end the revolution, but French officials betray him and he dies in jail. However, in 1804, Jean-Jaques Dessalines wins independence for Haiti.