High taxes that forced peasants to organize and produce goods. Trade and luxury goods available to the rich.
Rome Slowly Dissolves: Civil Wars & proxy Barbarian wars.
Exposes gap between Imperial Roman Govt & regional elites -- BIG contrib to empire break-up; Proxy wars that included the barbarian groups (reminds me of Berbers & Islam); so nnot so much that Barbarians ran amok. Rather the local romans and rival factions used and worked with the Barbarians to increase their local power.
Barbarian Armies Create Local Power Blocks Among Local Romans
This is what brought the fall of Rome. - (Wood, loc 865, citing others)
"the western emire was not so much destoyed as eroded and finally rendered unnecessary by a a score of little Romes, rooted in more restricted areas of control" (Wood, loc. 867).
Barbarian invasion break Roman tax collection system. Wickham says that peasantry happy in these early Middle Ages bc freed from pressure of tax collectors & landlords (Brown, loc 838-844)
Arian concept of Christ is that the Son of God did not always exist but was begotten by God the Father.
- Created by Arias (250 - 336 ce), who was condemned at Nicea
(Wills, Francis, p 67)
Constantine gathers 300 bishops
- Council agrees on Trinitarian creed (Arianism declared heresy)
- Tried to bring together East & West of church (part of long process)
Created out of conversation with Christianity & Judaism -- saw it as a culmination of the two religions *Brown, Rise of Western" loc 720
The Carolingian Renaissance, the first of three medieval renaissances, was a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire occurring from the late eighth century to the ninth century, taking inspiration from the Christian Roman Empire of the fourth century. During this period there was an increase of literature, writing, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms, and scriptural studies.
The Carolingian Renaissance occurred mostly during the reigns of the Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. It was supported by the scholars of the Carolingian court, notably Alcuin of York. Charlemagne's Admonitio generalis (789) and his Epistola de litteris colendis served as manifestos.