European Integration 1987-Present

Events

SEA takes effect

1987

Delors' Report

1988 - 1989

Committee set up to construct report to analyze/propose possibility of movement towards monetary union

1989, Report presented and accepted by 11:1

Collapse of Communism

1989 - 1990

IGCs on monetary/political union

1991

Proposals of IGCs are incorporated into the Treaty on European Union

Maastricht Treaty Signed

February 1992

After agreement December 1991; John Major's governments agrees after removal of a chapter on social policy and opt-out for monetary union

Sweden, Finland, Austria join

1 January 1995

The 1996 IGC

1996

Intended to review working of TEU, but the unexpectedly late ratification meant the IGC was used simply to prepare ground for eastern enlargement

Conflict over Britain's beef crisis

Amsterdam Treaty

1997

Euro effective

1999

AU, FI, FR, DE, IE, IT, LU, NL, PT, ES
Greece fails to meet criteria

Nice Treaty signed

February 2001

Institutional reform:
- One commissioner per member state from 2005
○ Max. 26
○ Rotation system beyond this
- Treaty extended co-decision procedure w/ EP; changed allocation of seats; max. number of 732 MEPs
- Veto removed from 29/70 articles that retained it
- Large states to gain advantage in weighting of votes under QMV
- Any measure by QMV required 62% of EU population (benefits the large) & majority of states (benefits the small)
- In effect the QMV became complex and difficult to achieve positive outcome; triple majority:
○ Majority of weighted votes
○ Majority of states
○ 62%+ of population

9/11

11 September 2001

Lack of solidarity in EU; Britain, France, Germany have individual discussions, causing protests from other member states

Central and Eastern Enlargement

May 2004

CY, CZ, ET, HU, LV, LI, MT, PL, SK, SI
Negotiations start with Croatia

Constitutional Treaty signed

October 2004

NL & FR, later UK do not ratify CT

2005

Lisbon Treaty signed

December 2007

Later rejected in first Irish vote; passed in second vote after reassurances on areas of concern

Long Term

Iraq War

2003 - 2011

Britain (among others) engages in Iraq War

Eurocrisis

2009 - Present

Refugee Crisis

2015 - Present