3363 Review

BCE

Minoan Greece

3000 BCE - 1100 BCE

Homeric Age

1200 bce - 800 bce

Ancient Greece

800 B.C. - 338 B.C.

Education ideal – physical training was
paramount for war
• Women for breeding strong sons
• Mount Taygetus test
• Cynisca & 1000 butt kicks
• Glory or death

Roman Republic

200 BCE - 1 ce

Death of Julius Ceaser

Roman Empire

27 bc - 476 ad

Dominated Mediterranean world for some 4
centuries
• Rome with aqueducts, paved roads, parks,
libraries all w 1.5 million people in 17 km
circumference –
– Apartment-style living, smelly; very prosperous

CE

Medieval

476 - 1400

A "dark" time in physical culture, medicine
and sporting culture

Spread and
consolidation of
Christianity
n Medicine and medical
practices consistent
with the church

n Monasteries –
control of
knowledge
n Suppression of
knowledge that
countered the
teachings of
church

The Renaissance

1400 ad - 1600 ad

Re-birth of ancient Greek knowledge/culture - art,
scholarship, architecture
n Fall of Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire)

The Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the

Enlightenment) is a term used to describe a Fme

in Western philosophy & cultural life, centered

upon the 17th & 18th centuries, in which reason,

especially scienFfic reason was advocated as the

primary source of and legiFmacy for authority &

truth

“Experimental science”
• “Theories and systems”
• Great “scienFfic” thinkers

• Descartes, Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau
• Natural philosophical thought − focusing
on the laws of nature and the natural
world

The Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

The Victorian Era

1837 - 1901

• Causes of disease unknown
• No knowledge of germs
• Shared drinking cups, rarely

bathed, unless in the upper

class
• Sickness due to miasma or

noxious odour

The Twentieth Century

1900 - 1972

People

Bishop Odo of Bayeux

1049 CE - 1079 CE

n Son of a peasant woman
n Powerful churchman
n Half brother of William the
Conqueror
n Very "energetic”
- Advocate for sport & exercise
- Mind, body, soul strengthened
- Revolutionary thinker

The Bayeux Tapestry

1070

n Created in 1070's, by the order of
Bishop Odo
n Battle of hastings 1066, William
the Conqueror vs then King
Harold of Britain
n A superb source on medieval
sport and leisure ~ 70 m in
length

St. Thomas Aquinas

1225 - 1274

n Priest, philosopher,
theologian
n Greatest medieval scholastic of
all time (1225-1274 CE)
n Physical fitness and recreation

n Anything good to the body is good for
God
n The body is filled with God therefore the
body was good and not filled with sin
n A positive relationship between physical
well-being and mental health

Mondino de' Luzzi

1270 - 1326

Lessons in Anatomy

Gutenberg

1398 - 1468

Invented the printing press

Marcilio Ficino

1433 - 1499

Marcilio Ficino;
occult sciences
n Astrology;
horoscope -
"house of health"
n Astrologic
physiognomy

Leonardo Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

n Perfectability of
human form/
personality
n Vitruvian man:
devine proportion

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Pietà & the David

Vesalius

1514 - 1564

University of Pauda

Great anatomist

William Harvey

1578 - 1657

• “An Anatomical Lesson Concerning

the Movement of the Heart and the
Blood in Animals.” (1628)

Theorized blood circulaJon from

anatomical observaJon
• Through his discovery of circulaFon,
jusFfied the process of experiment

and observaFon

Marcello Malpighi

1628 - 1694

“De pulmonibus” “On the

Lungs”

• IdenFfied the missing link

in Harvey's theory
through the microscope
• Fine blood cells

(alveoli) and oxygen
transfer

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Neo-Humanist

• Enlightenment educator, philosopher, poliFcian, writer
• Inalienable rights of “man”

Locke, An Essay Concerning Human

Understanding, (1690)
• The mind derives its total content from

the environment ~ humans do not have

innate ideas, everything comes from

experience
• Mind is shaped by the experiences
which it is exposed to

“tabula rasa” − the mind as a blank slate upon
which experience would write the story of one's

life

Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

1632 - 1665

Refined the microscope

further research; allowing

detailed invesFgaFons of

the body
• decreased reliance on

speculaFon and dogmaFc

adherence to old

knowledge in medicine

Sir Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Codifying laws of the universe through

mathemaFcal formulae
• Natural Philosophies & Principles of

MathemaJcs (1686)

• QuanFfied natural laws

• Biomechanics

Karl Linnaeus

1707 - 1778

Systema naturae (1735)
• System for naming, ranking, and
classifying organisms
• Linnean system − biological idenFficaFon;

system based on similariFes such as internal

and external anatomy, physiological

funcFons, geneFc makeup, or evoluFonary
history
• Zoology (Species, genus, … phylum…)

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1788

Followed Locke’s work on human

understanding
• French philosopher
• Social Contract (1762)
• “Nature gospel of educaFon” –
educaFonal naturalism

• Learn through senses

The proper way to educate a child is to take
“it” out into nature
• Allow the child to quesFon and inquire

Johann Gutsmuths

1749 - 1839

Philanthropinum at

Schnepfenthal InsFtute,

Gotha, Germany
• Philanthropist movement

(“people friends”)
• Allowing all children to

have access to edu. & phys
ed.

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

A Vindica.on of the Rights of

Women, 1792

• Feminist philosophy

• First women to advocate for
women’s right to educa,on,

du,es, etc.

Pehr Henrik Ling

1776 - 1839

Studied under Franz Natchegall in Copenhagen,

Denmark
• NaFonalist movement; Scandanavian

cultural heritage and mythology

• GymnasFc (exercise taxonomy)
• Military as well as therapeuJc focus of system

Fredrich Ludwig Jahn

1778 - 1852

“die Turnvater”or father of the Turners
• Hasenheide Turnplatz
“Father” of modern gymnasFcs
• German naFonalist ~ devastated by Napoleonic

wars and French dominaFon
• Saw gymnasFcs as method to strengthen and unify

his country
• Created 1st turnplatz(= exercise area) in 1811
Physical acFvity as a means, not
an end − naFonal regeneraFon
• German freedom lay in the
development of strong, sturdy,
fearless youth
• Cra}ed the first balance beam, horizontal bar,

parallel bar, and vaulFng horse
• IniFated whole Turnverein (outdoor gymnasFc

exercise) movement worldwide

Charles Beck

1798 - 1866

German−born student, friend and

follower of Jahn
• He fled Germany auer Jahn was

arrested
• Established the now−famous Round Hill

School, Northampton Massachuseks in

1825

• Taught La,n and physical educa,on

(Turner gymnas,cs)

Francois Delsarte

1811 - 1871

Vocal and drama,cs teacher
• Formulated laws of aesthe,cs
• 50 years of observa,on and analysis of the way normal

people express their emo,ons through movement

• for actors and actresses to

help them connect with

their mind, soul and life
• series of exercises to

develop a clear concept of

their body in space

Catharine Beecher

1820 - 1830

• Social reform advocate (Harriet
Beecher Stowe) early female
exercise
• Women's gymnastics to develop
appropriate physique for women
to fit women into their social
and domestic roles (true
womanhood)
• Hartford Female Seminary,
1824; Western Female
Institute, 1833-37
• Miss Beecher’s Housekeeper and
Healthkeeper,1875 ed.

Dio Lewis

1823 - 1886

advocated physical exercise as a

part of public educa,on − against

use of drugs (homeopath)
• 1864 school for ladies based

upon hygiene in Lexington,

Massachuseks

Eadweard Muybridge

1830 - 1904

Background
• Genius, eccentric
• Murder
• Landscape photography
• Animal interests

Dudley Allen Sargent

1840 - 1924

• Hygenic -- Anatomy &

physiological Func,on
• Educative − Cul,va,ng
mind body
• Re-creative − Restoring vital
energy
• Remedial − Correc,ng physical

defects (OT/PT)

Horace Fletcher

1849 - 1919

American businessman from
Lawrence, Massachusetts
o A.B. - Z of Our Own Nutrition
(1903)
o writing and lectures on
popular nutrition
o president of the Health and
Efficiency League of America
o subsidized research on nutrition

John Harvey Kellogg

1852 - 1943

unique set of
cures and
exercise
equipment to
cure ailments of
his time
o breakfast cereal
industry
innovator (1895)

Louis Cyr

1863 - 1912

R. Tait McKenzie

1867 - 1938

Athlete, sculptor, physician,

physical educator

• Lifelong friend to Dr James
Naismith
• McGill grad, then U of
Pennsylvania

• Books: Exercise in Educa8on and
Medicine

• and Reclaiming the Maimed

Eugene Sandow

1867 - 1925

Charles Atlas

1892 - 1972

o Born Angelo Siciliano in Italy
o December 23, 1972, was the developer of a
bodybuilding method and its associated exercise
program that was best known for a landmark
advertising campaign featuring Atlas's
name and likeness
o It has been described as one of the longestlasting
and most memorable ad campaigns of all
time – “ the 97 lb weakling”

Bernarr Macfadden

1900 - 1955

o Founded Phys Culture
mag in 1899
o Eventually grew a
publishing empire with
Life, True Detective, True
Story , Sport, True
Romances (huge
readership)